The most common type of argument is a proposal argument. As a general rule, the more precise your problem and solution are, the more likely your plan will withstand valid critique from skeptical readers. When writing a proposal argument, it is helpful to start with a conclusion that summarizes the main idea of your argument. Then, write down any facts or examples that support or contradict this conclusion. This will help you organize your thoughts and ensure that you have considered all relevant points.
Proposal arguments can be either for or against something. They often begin with the word "why" or its equivalent (such as "wherefore") and ask a question about something. For example, "Why should we care about environmental issues?" can be answered by proposing a plan for reducing our impact on the environment or by arguing that these issues deserve our attention because they affect everyone. Proposal arguments can also be used to make a case for something new. For example, a company might want to introduce a new product line so they can include a claim such as "Our new product will save consumers time." By explaining how their product works and why it is beneficial, the company hopes to persuade customers to buy it.
There are two types of proposal arguments: formal and informal. Informal proposal arguments are simply written explanations that try to convince others of some idea or concept.
Consider supporting points to be mini-papers with mini-thesis statements (sometimes called main ideas). Supporting arguments "back up" or "prove" your thesis—to the extent that it can genuinely be established. The primary point of each supporting argument is bolded and highlighted in the following essay. These are the parts of an essay that readers should try to understand first, before moving on to more detailed explanations.
Source: The textbook I use for my introductory philosophy course defines supporting arguments as follows: "Supposing that we accept a hypothesis h, a supporting argument for h is one that either confirms or disconfirms h by showing that h is true or false, respectively." This definition ensures that students understand that supporting arguments are not the same as proofs - which confirm axioms rather than hypotheses- or demonstrations-which prove facts about what is assumed or known already. It also prevents students from thinking that any reason given for believing or claiming something is therefore proof of that thing being true.
Supporting arguments are important because they show why someone believes what they do. If someone claims that God exists but cannot give a reason why we should believe him, that would be a bad argument for God's existence. However, if they were to say that many great people have had experiences that seem to show that God exists, this would be a good argument to include in their reasoning process.
1. A proposal must be convincing in order to persuade an audience to "purchase" your concept. The idea is to acquire support by notifying the right people. Writing a compelling yet interesting proposal may be more challenging than other types of writing in the course. You need to make sure that you include all relevant information and focus on presenting it in an effective way.
2. Unlike other forms of writing, a proposal has a specific purpose which should be kept in mind while writing it. A proposal for a new product development project will be different from a proposal for a research study or even a report. Even though they are all related to concepts, ideas, and opinions, they have different requirements from a writer's point of view. A product development proposal should be clear, concise, and error-free because it will be read by humans rather than computers. Research studies or reports can usually use extra spaces, paragraphs, and pages because they are intended to be read by people too. They often involve describing complex processes or systems with many components so as not to limit the author's scope.
3. Proposals usually contain several elements such as objectives, assumptions, risks, benefits, alternatives, constraints, and funding information. Each element requires a specific word count when written out separately but together they can add up to much more.
Part 2 of 10 Things to Avoid When Writing a Proposal
8 steps to a more convincing proposal
Finish your proposal with a quick summary of the problem, solution, and advantages. Highlight the key points and make your proposal stand out by restating concepts or data you want your audience to remember. Examine your proposal for consistency of concepts and whether the pieces complement one another. If you have been writing clearly and logically, then your reader should be able to follow your argument without needing to refer back to notes or other material.
When you finish typing, read over your work to ensure that it is clear and concise, and that you have not omitted any important information. When you are ready to submit your proposal, follow our submission guidelines at the beginning of this guide.
Your proposition should (1) specify the scope of your argument by explaining its circumstance or setting, and (2) make explicit whose assumption you will challenge. Although you may offer all sides of the argument to let your readers to make their own decision, you might "hook" your readers by framing your argument as a question. For example, you could ask whether crime should be punished by death, rather than making a statement such as "Crime should be punished by death."
In order to do this, start with a general statement about the topic under debate. Then, narrow the statement down by identifying who is responsible for what has been done or not done. Finally, explain how someone else's action or inaction affects the original statement.
As an example, let's say that you are writing an article on crime prevention programs for at-risk youth. You could start off by saying something like "The United States needs more crime prevention programs." This statement can be narrowed down by identifying which agency is responsible for creating these programs. Maybe it's not a single person but rather a group of people who work together to come up with ideas for new programs. So, we would now know that "someone" is responsible for creating these programs.
Now, explain how this person's actions affect our original statement. They create programs to try and prevent crime.
In college, you will most certainly face three main forms or sorts of arguments: the Toulmin argument, the Rogerian argument, and the Classical or Aristotelian argument.
The Toulmin argument is named after its creator, William Frederick Toulmin, who in 1920 published a book titled The Uses of Argument. In this book, Toulmin describes three different sort of arguments, which he calls the "forms" of argument.
These three forms are called the formal, the informal, and the dialectical.
The formal argument is used in debates and other situations where there is no chance that either side will change their mind. This form of argument is based on logic alone; it makes no reference to how someone feels about an issue. For example, if I were to present evidence that global warming is real and then present evidence that it is not real, we would say that I had used the formal argument because neither my original claim nor its denial could be true.
The informal argument uses logic as well as facts and reasoning to prove or disprove claims. It is used in essays and letters where one person wants to convince another person of something.