The author's name should be supplied exactly as it appears in the original publication. Include identifiers like "Jr." or "III," but not titles like "Dr." even if they are in the original text. Offset "Jr." or "III" with a comma only if it occurs that way in the original. For example, if the father wrote an article called "Mr. Jones Jr.," you would cite it as "Jones, James." If he were the only child named James, there would be no need for an offset.
In cases where more than one person is credited with the same contribution, list each one separately with a comma between names. For example, if John and Mary Smith contributed material for a book, you would list them both as authors even though only one of them (usually Mary) signed the copyright form.
If the contribution was made by someone other than its author, check to see if they have given written permission to be cited as co-authors. If so, then include them along with the author's name. Otherwise, just list the contributor as a "third party".
Contributors are not required to be listed in order of importance. If possible, try to identify contributors who did not share in the credit given to the author. For example, if the author credits himself as "writer" and "artist", you could cite him as "Smith, John and Mary".
Names should not be followed by titles (Dr., Sir, Saint, etc.) or degrees (PhD, MA, DDS, etc.). A book with the author "John Bigbrain, PhD" appears as "Bigbrain, John." Include suffixes like "jr." or "II," though. Books published after someone's death will usually not have a Dr. or other degree attached to their name.
If your professor gave you permission to use his or her name on the front of your paper, that is acceptable. However, it is better form to use your own name. Also, unless the person has given you their written consent, it is inappropriate to use their name on the paper.
DR. JOHN BIGBRAIN JR. is common usage for an author who has not received a degree but is generally accepted as such by others in the field. If another writer objects to this designation, they can make their objections known by refusing to cooperate with you on future projects or by calling out "Fake Dr." when you are mentioned during lectures or seminars. This last option is rarely taken seriously by students because it is assumed that you will not be invited back to speak again.
DR. JOHN BIGBRAIN II is used for authors who have received a degree but do not use it themselves. This designation is often used for professors who have signed books with their first names and allow others to use their degree as a courtesy.
Write the author's complete name as it appears in the publication, followed by a comma. If there is more than one author, the first author should be named, followed by et al., followed by a comma. Titles such as "PhD" should be avoided. Put the book's title in italics or highlight it. Include the publisher and location of publication for academic works.
For unpublished works, include the date of creation and the person who created the work. These details should not be included in the bibliography for published works.
Include the page numbers where the information can be found by following the references with "see" or "visit".
Put full stops at the end of each sentence and paragraph, except for quotations. Start new sentences with capital letters.
Spellcheck your work before submitting it.
The 7th Edition of APA In the in-text reference, leave off the Jr. and III: (Lastname, year, p. X). In the bibliography, list him as Lastname, J., Year III.
APA Style reference list entries and in-text citations often do not mention the authors' academic qualifications or professional titles. Professional titles are also not included in reference list entries or in-text citations. For example, in the case of a Thomas the Train book written by Reverend W. Shedd Doggett with illustrations by Rozanne Duncan, these would be cited as author's last name and editor/artist respectively. Last names only are used in reference lists when there is more than one contributor to an article or book.
Academic degrees and professional licenses/certifications are generally not included in APA citations. However, if an academic degree is required to be licensed by your state board of education or other authority that regulates professionals, then including this information in the citation allows readers to find qualified experts in the field. For example, an A+ certification would be included in the citation for someone who has successfully completed the exam required to become an expert in his or her field.
In general, unless it is relevant to the topic at hand, it is better not to include unnecessary information in citations. If you are unsure whether or not to include something in a citation, ask yourself these questions: Is it helpful to readers? Would including this information improve my work?
In following citations, just the surname of the first author, followed by et al., should be used. When mentioning a work by six or more authors in-text, use the surname of the first author followed by et al. in all citations.
When there is no known author for a source, use the first one, two, or three words of the title instead of the author's surname. Initial articles such as "A," "An," or "The" are not counted. You should use enough words to make it obvious which work from your Works Cited list you're referring to. If the title is very short, like an article number or website address, then use the full name plus site prefix if necessary.
In addition to the words found in the title, many sources have short descriptive titles that identify them easily. These can also serve as a good substitute for the author's name. The Chicago Manual of Style states that when there is no author listed, you should use the phrase "source unknown."
It is acceptable to cite books with no authors listed if they are best-sellers or highly regarded works that are recognized by others in the field. For example, if you are writing about sports and want to refer to John Doe's book on football, you could say "John Doe, _Football: A Complete Guide to the Game_ (McGraw-Hill, $19.95), 2002."
Citations are only used in essays and reports, not in articles or reviews. If you are writing about different sources in detail, include page numbers to help readers find their way back to those sources later.