Italics are used for long works, car names, and movie and television program titles. Quotation marks are used to denote portions of a text, such as chapter titles, magazine articles, poetry, and short tales. Both types of markers can be used together; for example, an author might italicize the first word of a poem title.
When we (those of us in the United States) directly quote someone else or write dialogue, we use quotation marks. The names of poetry, short tales, chapters, songs, and TV program episodes are set off in quotation marks, whereas books, movies, plays, musicals, TV series, and newspapers are italicized. This is called "in-text citation." When we refer to works by authors' other than those mentioned in the text, we use footnotes or endnotes. These are items listed at the end of a book or article that contain information about the source of the material.
In academic writing, especially when referring to parts of texts, we often need to give credit to the original author. This is done with annotations or footnotes. An annotation is a brief comment within the body of an essay or paper while a footnote is a reference page number placed at the bottom of a page of an essay or paper. In research papers, these are usually included at the end of the document. In academic essays and publications, including doctoral dissertations, researchers often cite other people's work. They do this by using references, which are listed in an annotated bibliography or footnoted bibliography. References should be cited in the text using the author's last name and year published if it can be determined from the context. If not, they should be inserted in an unnumbered footnote on the final page of the document. Authors use bibliographies to list their sources of information and quotations.
If the source is self-contained and independent, italicize the title. Italicized book, play, film, magazines, databases, and online titles are italicized. If the source is part of a larger work, put the title in quotation marks. Articles, articles, chapters, poems, websites, songs, and speeches are all surrounded by quote marks.
Other Pieces of Art In formal writing, components of written works, such as podcast episodes or individual songs, are often given in quote marks. Italics, on the other hand, are frequently used on websites or in other media where quotation marks are reserved strictly for quoted content. Websites use italics to identify words that are important for understanding the context of the article but which aren't actually spoken by any character.
There are two types of quotes in English: single and double. A single-quote mark (') is used to indicate that a word or phrase that follows is part of the same sentence or paragraph as the one that introduced it. For example, if I were to write "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog", I would use a single-quote mark after "lazy". This means that the word "lazy" is not part of my vocabulary, nor does it appear in any other piece of writing by me; instead, it's an adjective that describes the dog. Double-quote marks ("") are used to indicate a direct quotation. These should be used whenever there is more than one word in its original position, as in this example. Here is how the same passage might look with double-quote marks: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog. " This means that both "quick" and "brown" are words that have been taken directly from another source and inserted into our text.
Articles, articles, chapters, poetry, websites, songs, and speeches are all surrounded by quote marks...
Italicize the titles of longer publications, such as books, magazines, databases, and websites. Titles published in longer works, such as articles, essays, chapters, poetry, Web pages, songs, and speeches, should be surrounded by quote marks. In contrast, underline the titles of shorter works, such as book covers, journals, newsletters, newspapers, pamphlets, and reports. They do not need to be surrounded by quote marks.
In English-language publications, the title page is the first page of a publication that includes the publication's date, author's name, address, and other information necessary for identification. The title page usually contains only one title; if there are more than one article by the same author, each will have its own title page. Sometimes a subtitle is included at the beginning of the page; this is especially common in books with long titles.
Book titles often use capitalization to emphasize words within the title. These used to be known as "capitals" but today's printing technologies allow for smaller typefaces without affecting the readability of the text. Words in titles that refer to people or events can also be emphasized by adding an adjective or adverb. This is commonly done with names of countries, cities, and organizations.
Example: "The Great Gatsby" emphasizes the word "great."
In general, you should italicize the titles of long works like books, movies, or record albums. Use quotation marks for the titles of shorter pieces of work: poems, articles, book chapters, songs, TV episodes, etc.
The reason for this is that both books and songs are referred to as "long poems", so it makes sense to use different styles for their titles.
Also, using italics or quotes for the titles of songs helps the reader know what kind of text they are reading/listening to.
Finally, using different styles for the titles of books and songs shows the reader that these are two separate categories of texts.
Movies, television series, plays, scientific species names, paintings, and works of art are also commonly italicized. Chapter titles, television episode titles, chapter titles, brief poems, and short tales are examples of shorter works that use quote marks. Full-length novels are normally set in conventional typeface, but in modern editions they may be printed in small capitals or in some other form of italics.
Italicization is used to distinguish words that are important or relevant to the meaning of the text but which wouldn't ordinarily require special attention. For example, in a book review there might be a list of books discussed or reviewed-these are usually called titles. The word titles is used instead of the proper name Booklist or Bibliography because these are generally not considered part of the body of the work being reviewed. In academic writing, the title page displays the full author's name and institution, so this would be the place to use italics if the work were regarded as important or significant.
In newspapers and magazines, the title of a story or article is often set in italics to indicate that it is a major point being made by the writer. This is done to draw attention to it or to make it stand out from the rest of the text.
In fiction, characters' names are sometimes italicized to denote status or importance.