If you include the author's name in a sentence, you do not need to add it again in your in-text citation. Instead, provide the page number (if any) at the conclusion of the quoted or paraphrased portion. 25 Shahrivar, 1399 AP English Language and Literature Coursework Example.
In-text Citation: MLA's in-text citation style employs the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is derived, as in: (Smith 163). Do not add a number in the parenthetical citation if the source does not utilize page numbers: (Smith).
Citations within the text of your essay should be included near where they are referenced. In general, underlining or highlighting key words in the source material will help readers find those keywords later when reading through the essay. Using appropriate in-text citations ensures that readers will be able to follow information back to its original location.
In addition to in-text citations, scholars often use endnotes or bibliographies to provide more detailed information about sources. Endnotes are placed at the end of the paper, followed by a numbered list of all the sources used in the essay. Bibliographies are separate lists of books or articles used as reference materials; these are usually placed at the beginning of the paper. Both endnotes and bibliographies should include the author's name, the title of the work, and the date of publication for easy identification by readers.
MLA guidelines state that "in-text" citations only are required for quotations less than five sentences long (or fewer than 60 words), while "in footnotes, endnotes, or brackets" citations are needed for longer quotations.
When available, in-text MLA citations should contain the author's last name and page number. The citation must come after the quotation but before the quoted content. The author's last name and page number should not be separated by a comma in the citation. The comma is unnecessary.
There are two methods for doing this: using a signal phrase, which means the in-text citation will just include the page number(s), or using a parenthetical citation, which includes the author's last name (or the title, if the work is authorless) plus the page number(s).
Internal citations are references within the text of your essay or article to other parts of itself. They should be used to provide support for specific points you are making, not as general citations that refer readers to other parts of your work. Using proper citations is important because it allows others to find your sources and verify their information with you directly!
There are two types of internal citations: direct and indirect. A direct internal citation is one that refers back to a passage or section in the same document. For example, if there is a quote on the first page of an essay and later in the paper you want to reference that quote, you would type "Ehrman says..." followed by the page number. This is a direct internal citation because it is referring back to the same piece of evidence—in this case, the quote. An indirect internal citation is one that does not refer back to the same piece of evidence. For example, if there is a photo on the first page of an essay and later in the paper you want to reference that photo, you would type "The photo below shows..." followed by the page number.
In-text citations feature the author's last name followed by a page number in parentheses. "This is a direct quotation" (Smith 8). If the author's name is not mentioned, use the title's initial word or words. "The data in this table are taken from Smith." (Fletcher 12). Database titles should be cited as sources and should appear in the Reference section of your paper.
Citing databases does not require any special techniques; simple in-text citation is all that is needed. Citing databases in-text follows the same rules as citing other books: find out how to format book titles (see the previous question) and then simply type the name of the database with parentheses around it. For example, if the name of the database you are citing is Facts on File World Almanac, use this form of citation: ("Facts on File").
It is important to note that when you are citing a database, you are not referring to a specific entry but to the whole collection or series. So, while you would normally refer to an individual entry within a database, you cannot do so for all entries at once. For example, if you were writing about the world population in 1995, you could look up the figure itself (or even estimate it yourself!) but you could not reference only those births/deaths that took place that year because they would not be applicable to anyone else.
Make use of the same formatting as in the works cited list, such as quotation marks. Include the date if available.
Citing multiple sources within the text requires separate in-text citations for each one. For example, if you were to cite both Smith and Jones in your work, you would need to provide two in-text citations: one for Smith and one for Jones. Within these in-text citations, follow the exact format used for single-source citations above.
Longer quotations can be difficult to reference because they often don't include page numbers. In this case, it's best to either include the full text of the quotation with its attribution or reference an external source for more information. For example, "The president has the power to declare war," said Senator X, "and the power to assign duties regarding matters of foreign affairs, but only Congress can authorize military action." This quotation comes from www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode15/usc_sec_15_00004600–0169.html. It's a longer piece of evidence that provides context for how President Truman came to support the Korean War effort.