When a comma or period is required after a quotation, the punctuation mark is usually placed before the closing quotation mark in the United States. The comma or period is usually placed after the quote mark in the United Kingdom.... Thus, according to the Chicago Manual of Style, a period should follow this type of quoted material.
The punctuation mark (full stop or comma) always occurs before the closing quote mark in American English. In contrast, unless the quotation is also a complete phrase, the punctuation mark will normally occur after the closing quotation mark in Australian English. Some writers omit the punctuation mark when the statement being quoted is not part of a longer sentence.
For example: "I like your new hair color." "Oh, thank you!"
In general usage, periods are not needed at the end of quotations, except perhaps for rhetorical effect. However, some publications may require them if the quotation is part of a story or other piece of writing that needs a clear ending point. Also, some computers use punctuation marks to identify where sentences end. If you publish content online, browsers may treat single quotes as signifying a sentence instead of a word. So, including punctuation at the end of quotations can help readers distinguish words they can click on (for links) and pages they can scroll down (for menus).
However, as with many other aspects of grammar, using punctuation correctly is not mandatory. If you write in a formal style, use punctuation accordingly. Otherwise, no one will know how your quotes are ended.
The usual guideline is that commas and periods should always be inside the quote marks, but all other punctuation, such as question marks, colons, semicolons, and exclamation points, should be outside the quotation marks, unless they are part of the original quotation.
Again, the American form prevails in Canada: periods and commas are placed within closing quotation marks; all other markings are placed inside if they fit with the cited content, outside if they do not. Colons and semicolons are particularly noteworthy. It is common practice to remove them at the conclusion of cited content.
Similarly, question marks and exclamation points are removed from quoted material. However, the rule about avoiding multiple exclamation marks is rarely observed in practice.
Finally, there is no specific rule for titles or names. They are usually placed within quotation marks, but if they are very short (one word), then they can be written without quotes. Sometimes only the first letter is capitalized: "John" instead of "John's".
In conclusion, use your common sense and be consistent!
Put one space after a period, comma, colon, semicolon, question mark, or exclamation point as a general rule. However, if a closing quote mark immediately follows any of these marks, don't put a space between them. In either situation, no space should be used between the period and the closing quote mark.
Unless the quotation is followed by a citation, the last period or comma is placed inside the quotation marks even though it is not part of the quoted content. If a quotation is followed by a citation in parentheses, the citation is followed by a period. Otherwise, there would be no way to identify which words are being quoted and which are not.
In academic writing, including research papers, essays, and reports, quotations are often attributed to people in order to show respect for their ideas while still maintaining clarity about what they said. For example, if someone says "Science is based on facts and experiments, poetry is based on feelings and imagination", you would normally cite this as "Thomas Edison invented the phonograph". Without a citation, it would be difficult for others to distinguish which words were spoken by which person.
In a scholarly article or essay, a quotation usually requires a footnote to indicate the source of the quote. The standard abbreviation for footnote is fnt (with no space between the t and the n). When the source of the quote is known, it is usual to include it with the date of publication using bibliographic style. For example, the author's name and the date would be included in this form: Thomas Edison invented the phonograph January 2, 1877.
The fnt should be inserted at the end of the sentence or phrase that contains the quotation.