Should I insert spaces after the periods in the examples below? I see folks missing spaces all the time in their academic work, and I'm not sure if I should correct them. I understand the aim to prevent a crowded, less readable appearance. CiteULike, the citation service I use, provides a selection of six regularly used citation styles. They are listed next to each other, with no spaces between any of them. I've included images of three of the styles here, but there are also bibliography styles called "simple" and "compact". Those don't include a title page for the references, just a list of them at the end.
Here are the six citation styles provided by CiteLike: author-date (also known as Harvard), parenthesized date, single-period date, multiple-author series (or multiauthor), numerical chronology, and abstract. The first four of these require spaces after the periods. The last two do not. You can see from this comparison chart that author-date is the most flexible style when it comes to allowing spaces or not after the period.
So, depending on which style you use, spaces may or may not be required after the period. If you have questions about how to format your citations using CiteLike, please contact us at [email protected]
When writing in APA Style, one space should be used after a period (or other punctuation mark at the conclusion of a sentence). However, if your instructor or a non-APA publication has special criteria (for example, using two spaces), adhere to them.
If your teacher likes two spaces after a period or other closing punctuation mark, leave one space. Regardless of the spacing you pick, make sure to employ it consistently throughout your article. For further information, consult the MLA's formatting requirements. The APA requires only one space after a full stop.
MLA Essay Format Type Requirements Everything in the essay should be double spaced, including extended quotes and the works referenced list. The following punctuation spacing rules apply in the essay: There are two gaps between sentences. One space follows a full stop or other punctuation mark; a second space is used after a sentence-final exclamation point or question mark.
These guidelines are generally followed by academic writers, but they are not always observed by others. If you have doubts about how to format your essay, please consult with your instructor or writing center staff member.
Every citation should start on a new line. Like the remainder of your article, use double line spacing. There should be no unnecessary gaps between citations.
However, there are a few fundamental principles to follow when it comes to punctuation arrangement with citations. A reference that follows a full sentence should be considered as a complete sentence in its own right, beginning with a capital letter and ending with a period. This is true regardless of whether the reference is long or short. Therefore, even if a reference is only one word, it should still be followed by a comma.
References can also be used to highlight important words or phrases in your text. These often include quotes, paraphrases, and excerpts. When writing their references, researchers will usually quote the most important parts of the source material - this makes their work more relevant and interesting to readers. In addition, they may paraphrase or summarize the source material while still referring to it by name. Finally, they may also include excerpts from the source material in their references. These too are useful tools for getting around limitations imposed by publisher restrictions on the number of pages in a given volume. For example, an author might choose to mention a famous saying by Abraham Lincoln in their paper and give credit to him directly instead of relying on a dictionary definition.
Single-spacing is proper, according to the AP Stylebook. The Chicago Manual of Style is the same way. The Modern Language Association Style Center, on the other hand, recommends that writers use a single space after a period unless specifically instructed otherwise. According to them, using a double space after a period "is unnecessary and undesirable."
Your editor should be able to tell you what to do with regard to spacing after a period. If they don't, ask them why not.
Before employing a conventional in-text (parenthetical) reference, one should complete her sentence with a period. All sources read while performing research should be included in the Works Mentioned, regardless of whether the sources were cited within the work. In addition to in-text references, sources can be cited in the Reference section or the Bibliography.
In-text citations are used when referencing information found in other works--such as books, journals, and websites--that cannot be referenced by author's name alone. For example, if the information being cited is found in a book, the citation would look like this: "See Chapter 3 for more information." Or, if the information came from an online source, it would look like this: "Visit the site for more information about this topic."
In-text citations are used instead of footnotes because they are part of the main body of the work being reviewed, rather than located at the end. Also, in-text citations allow for more freedom in the placement of these references since they do not have to appear after each use of the cited information.
There are two types of in-text citations: conventional and functional. With conventional in-text citations, the text following the citation ends with a full stop. So, for the previous example, the ending punctuation would be a period.