When the source of a quotation is listed after the quotation, use an em dash before it. That is, indeed, an em dash. You don't require any additional room. Following a direct quotation, place a dash before the citation (author, title of work, or both). This is common practice in academic writing.
To make a quote say something other than what the author meant, use ellipses. When the dots are put after a complete sentence, include the phrase's closing punctuation followed by the ellipsis points. Leave out the spaces before and after the ellipsis points, as well as the spaces between them.
For example: "I don't want to talk about it." or "I'm tired of talking about it." or even just..."i'm tired". The last one is the shortest version and tells your reader that you're finished talking about it.
Sometimes people use three periods (..) instead, but this is incorrect. Two periods are enough.
Parentheses, colons, and commas can all be replaced with the em-dash. Using the em-dash generally makes the writing style more casual, as if you were writing to an old friend. To make an em dash, type two hyphens together with no spaces between them and no spaces before or after the hyphens. So this is how you would write "Hello" in America: Hello-. But you should only do this when writing in a formal manner; using em dashes when writing in a casual tone is incorrect.
An example of when you might use this punctuation mark is if you were quoting someone saying hello with no name attached, like so: "Hello--". Or if you wanted to indicate that something was said but not recorded, such as a side conversation: "Someone asked me why I looked so sad, and I told him/her I had lost my key."
Finally, if you want to indicate that something was omitted, such as a word or phrase that was mentioned earlier in the text but not included due to space limitations: "I saw my friend John at school today, but I didn't tell him about the party because we weren't close enough for me to mention it."
In conclusion, an em dash is useful for indicating omissions, conversations held out of earshot, and formal quotations. That's pretty much it!
In professional writing, use an em dash sparingly. Em dashes can be used in place of commas, semicolons, colons, and parentheses in informal writing to signify increased emphasis, an interruption, or a sudden shift of thinking. In formal writing, these same functions are fulfilled by using ellipses (three periods...). Thus, an em dash is a short break in the text, like a blank line or a bold word.
In formal writing, a semicolon would be used here. An en dash (--) can be used in place of an em dash when the omission of the hyphen does not affect the meaning.
To draw attention to a list, use an em dash. A colon can be used between an independent clause and a list in a statement that starts with an independent clause and finishes with a list. When the list appears first, it's best to connect it to the clause using a dash. This indicates that what follows is a further explanation of or expansion on what was just said.
An em dash is a punctuation mark-like character (|) used to indicate the separation of ideas or items not meant to be read as one sentence. It's commonly used in quotations to divide an excerpt from a book or article by adding interest or clarity to the text. It can also be used in your own writing to highlight key words in a sentence or to show any other type of separator.
Because it's used so often in literature and journalism, many people know how to correctly use an em dash even if they don't know its name. However, because it has no single correct usage, each instance requires its own judgment based on the purpose and effect desired.
There are two main ways to use an em dash: as an indented paragraph and within a quote. We'll discuss both here. But first, let's look at some examples of when this punctuation mark might come in handy.
Em dashes are used in place of parentheses. Use dashes to attract emphasis to the parenthetical information. Use parenthesis to insert the parenthetical material more quietly. When using dashes instead of parentheses, the surrounding punctuation should be ignored. For example, "It's OK - we can work things out!" would become simply "It's OK".
Em dashes are used in text messages and emails because they allow for some extra flexibility in word choice and arrangement. Parentheses are always optional in written language, so if you want to include any parentheticals in your message, you must do so with em dashes instead of parentheses.
An em dash is a common typographical symbol which comes before a phrase or clause within the sentence to indicate that what follows is additional information that is relevant but not essential to the meaning of the sentence. For example, if I say "John is tall -- over six feet" then it can be inferred that John is not very short. If I had included parenthesis here to emphasize the information then it would have looked like this: "John is tall (he's over 6 feet)."
In general, em dashes are used instead of parentheses when you want to make something explicit that might otherwise be assumed.
The em dash is commonly used without spaces on either side, and this tutorial follows that convention. Most publications (and all that adhere to AP style) place a space before and after the em dash. This helps make clear distinctions between text run on and separated by the em dash.