Cite Your Sources Include a reference in parenthesis whenever you refer to a research by restating facts or findings. The standard pattern is to list the author's last name, followed by a comma and the year of publication, all surrounded in parentheses. You can also include a citation for an article that you have used as a primary source if it is relevant to your discussion.
In academic papers, bibliographies are lists of sources cited within the body of the paper. These can be divided into three main categories: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary sources are those that offer first-hand information, such as interviews with participants or observations of events. Secondary sources are reviews of evidence or studies that have already been done; they often provide further information about the topic under discussion. Tertiary sources are books or articles on the subject of the paper that have not been used as primary or secondary sources.
When writing up results from your own experiments, you should always include detailed notes on what was done, how it was done, and what the results were. If another researcher has already published on the same topic, you can use this work as a primary source. If there is enough similarity between your study and others', then you should only need to describe your study design and report your results; you don't need to re-explain everything from scratch.
Method 1: Make a Basic Reference List Citation Begin with the author. A book citation in your reference list should normally begin with the author's last name. In parenthesis, put the year of publication. Input a space after the period following the final author's initial, then open parentheses and type the year the book was released. Italicize the title of the book. Type the rest of the words in standard typeface.
Example: Hawley, Kelly (2002). How to reference a book using the APA style? Addison-Wesley Professional. Retrieved on April 3, 2008 from http://www.addisonwesley.com/books/content/00024037.html.
Method 2: Use Endnotes or Bibliography Pages Begin with the author's last name. An endnote is a note at the bottom of a page explaining where more information can be found. In the bibliography, notes are listed under the names of people who helped with research or provided other information. Endnotes and bibliographies are usually placed at the back of the document. Include the title of the book along with an indication of how many pages it is followed by. This allows others to identify other works by the same author. Include the publisher and location if available.
Citation in the Text When using material from a lab manual in your text, place the citation between parentheses. Insert the name of the manual's publisher, such as a firm, a college department, or the surname of an instructor. After a comma, list the year of publication, for example: (Department of Physics, 2012).
In addition to the publisher's name and year, include the page number on which the material appears. Use the section number to identify each piece of related material. For example, if the laboratory exercise includes questions about helium gas, cite both the lab exercise and its corresponding chapter or section number.
It is acceptable to use starred numbers instead of words for easier reference. For example, if there are two experiments mentioned under the heading "Experiments", cite them as "(Expt. 1) Experiment 1" and "(Expt. 2) Experiment 2".
Do not use quotation marks when citing material from a lab manual. Quotation marks indicate that a word or phrase is being quoted. Citing material from a lab manual is not quoting anyone, so no quotation marks are needed.
When citing sources in APA format, use the author-date method. Jones (1998), for example, and a complete citation should be supplied in the paper's reference list.
For an in-text reference, write the name of the assessment author and the year of the assessment separated by a comma and between parentheses in APA style. If there is more than one author, use a comma to separate each author's last name and an ampersand in front of the last author's name. Include the title of the assessment if it is not part of the standard bibliography for the article.
For a web page reference, include the URL of the page containing the assessment along with the date of the assessment. You can find the URL on the cover or inside the book.
To make your own reference, including for online resources, include these elements in the text: assessment name, author(s), year published, URL of publication.
For example, "The Chicago Community Health Assessment" was written by Robert M. Anderson et al. and published in 2000. Its URL is www.chicagobrain.org/resources/publications/community_health_assessments."
Citing a community health assessment is similar to citing any other public document. The only difference is that you should include the date of the assessment while referencing it otherwise the reader will think that you are referring to a new assessment every time you publish new information based on previous findings.
Secondary Materials Include an item in the reference list for the secondary source you utilized. Identify the primary source in the text and cite it in the secondary source that you utilized. For example, if you were referencing some statistics in the news article, then you would include the statistic cited from Fox News.
When writing your bibliography or works cited page, you should always try to use published sources only. Unpublished studies or materials created by yourself or others will not be considered for credit. If you are using your own material, you should provide proof that you have permission to use it (for example, a copyright release form).
In addition to including the title of the book or article, also include the author's name, year published, and page numbers where applicable. You should also include the type of source - such as "news article", "encyclopedia", or "thesis" - as well as its location within the work. Finally, include any special symbols used in the source (such as ® for brands) as well as their definition when relevant.
Example: A researcher uses data from two different studies to prove her point. She cites both studies in her essay but only includes the citation for one of them in her bibliography because the other one was unpublished.
Select any article or eBook from your list that you wish to cite by clicking on its title. On the right side of the item page, click the Cite symbol. The Citation Format will be shown above the article or eBook that has been cited in several forms. The second style indicated is APA. Click on this option to create a new citation using those parameters.
The citation style varies depending on the academic discipline. APA (American Psychological Association), for example, is used in education, psychology, and the sciences. The Humanities employ the MLA (Modern Language Association) style. Business, history, and the fine arts all employ the Chicago/Turabian style.
Only materials referenced in your article are listed in your "Works Cited" or "References." In a "bibliography," you identify all of the resources you used to prepare your essay, whether or not you credited the work.
The most typical method of citing sources is to provide a list of "Works Cited" or "References" at the conclusion of your research work. When citing sources in MLA (Modern Language Association) format, the title of your list of citations is "Works Cited"; when citing sources in APA (American Psychological Association) format, the title is "References."