Footnotes: How to Format Them Begin by stating the author's name and the title of the work. If required, include publishing details. Include the page number on which the relevant content appears. Finish with a link to an internet source. In subsequent mentions of the same source, shorten the titles.
Footnotes should include:
How to Cite Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA If you use a source in a footnote or endnote, it must be listed in the Works Cited section. The author's last name, which appears at the beginning of the Works Cited item, should be mentioned in the remark. If there is no author, the title is used instead. So, for example, if the work was published by someone who wrote only "Publisher, Year", you would list it as follows: Miller, D. (2006). How do I cite footnotes in MLA? Statman, J. (1988). Statistical Analysis with Microsoft Excel, New York: Wiley.
Citing multiple sources from the same book or article is called concatenating works. Concatenation means putting together; thus, citing several sources that discuss the same topic allows for more information to be presented in your paper. In order to provide credit to those authors who have previously written on the same topic, follow this format: LastName, FirstName (Year) Title of Article/Book. For example, if an article has three authors named Smith, they would be cited as Smith, John R. (1997). Multiple citation formats. Retrieved from http://www.statsoft.com/texts/multiple-citation-formats/.
It is acceptable to cite articles that are not published in books as long as they are recognized journals with an impact factor. Journals are rated between 0 and 4 stars.
Footnotes should be used to convey more information about the text to the reader. A bibliography will give the reader with complete facts about the work, including when and where the source was published. A footnote may merely provide the source's title. However, as most bibliographies are also works in themselves, using notes instead can reduce the overall size of the reference list.
The standard abbreviation for a footnote is fn. (Fully referenced pages include the page number or numbers and the full citation.) In academic styles, all citations within the text should include the author's name(s) and the date of publication if known. If unsure, leave it out. An example of a cited sentence: "For further reading on this topic, see Jones 2004, ch. 4." would need a footnote referencing Page 37 of this book with this sentence then followed by the word "see".
In short, footnotes are used to reference material that does not directly relate to the text; they are therefore a form of external linkage. Within the text, only titles and personal names of people are given without any form of reference such as year published or page number. This is because these items are considered essential for identifying the source of information. Footnotes are usually included at the end of articles or chapters but can be placed at the end of volumes if there is sufficient space.