Please do not use quotation marks. Use your own words to introduce the quotation, followed by a colon (if you have written a complete sentence) or a comma if you use a phrase such as "according to" along with the author's name. Finish with a full stop and the footnote number. The end of your essay should also include these punctuation marks.
An exact quote should be in quotation marks (""), or a block quotation should be used if the quotation is 40 words or more. Then, just after the quotation, you include an In-Text Citation to identify where the quote originated from.
Begin the quotation with your own phrase. Finish with a colon, followed by the quotation. "My father's father lived in a time of war: 'There was no such thing as peace.' This saying is often attributed to Genghis Khan, but it is not known where he said it. For another example, here is Abraham Lincoln: 'The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.'" You can also begin and end a quotation this way when quoting multiple people.
It is good practice to provide source information for quotations you use in essays or reports. This shows that what you are quoting is real people and events and not your own ideas. It is also helpful if you cite books, articles, movies, or websites that contain more information about the subject matter of your paper.
When citing sources, it is best to give full names for individuals or organizations, even if you know them only by their initials. This will help others find the information later if they are interested in reading more about these people or groups.
Finally, remember to be polite when quoting other people. Even if you think what they say is stupid or wrong, still quote them respectfully. That shows that you respect other people's views even if you disagree with them.
Direct quotations are often used in the midst of a paragraph. Use quotation marks at the beginning and end of each quote, use the exact words from the original text, and identify your source, otherwise your work may be deemed plagiarism. Quotations can also be included in paragraphs without using quotation marks if the sentence containing the quotation is independent of other sentences in the paragraph. For example, this sentence is acceptable because it provides a relevant detail about the topic: "For example, while the first three chapters discuss different types of arguments, chapter 4 focuses on just one argument type - the logical argument."
Indirect quotations are paraphrases or summaries of texts or ideas. When writing about someone else's idea or concept, it is common to use indirect quotations. Indirect quotations cannot be used as their own separate piece of writing but rather serve as a summary or paraphrase of the original text. For example, if I were to write about John Stuart Mill's view on liberty, I might use this statement as an indirect quotation: "Mill argued that liberty requires security, which can only be achieved through law and authority."
Academic essays often include examples to help readers understand the topic being discussed. These examples may come directly from primary sources such as books or articles, or they may be derived from secondary sources such as Wikipedia or other online dictionaries.
When utilizing a direct quote from a source, provide the author's family name, the year of publication, and the page number in round brackets, and surround the direct quote with single quotation marks. The author's name might also be used elsewhere in the phrase. For example: "John F. Kennedy said," "Mahatma Gandhi said," or "Pope Benedict XVI said."
Also, refer to the source directly whenever possible. So, for example, instead of writing, "According to John Kennedy," write "John F. Kennedy." Similarly, instead of saying "Obama noted that Roosevelt had similar concerns when he was president," say "Obama cited Roosevelt as having similar concerns when he was president."
Sources should be referenced in the text of your paper, not just at the end. In addition, sources include books, magazines, newspapers, and websites. Do not copy and paste material from outside sources without including references. If you use someone else's words or ideas without giving them credit, you will probably be forced to rewrite part of your paper.
Harvard style requires that each source have a complete title (including author's name) and address information available at the end of your paper. If you don't know the exact title of the source, think about what aspect of the topic it covers and look for clues in the text.
Before you utilize the knowledge, tell the audience where you got it (the opposite of in-text citations). Instead, employ small pauses. Provide enough information about each source so that your viewers may locate them with minimal effort. For example, if the source is well-known, then mention its author and date.
Quotes inside quotes: For quotes within quotes, use single quote marks for the internal quote, including opening and closing. If both quotations ended together, you'd have a single quote mark and two double quote marks. "The surgeon described it as "simply a simple approach," he claimed. "It's like removing a tooth.
Quotations outside quotes: Use double quote marks for quotations that aren't part of a quoted phrase or sentence. "He said that women lead men down the path to extinction", she told her friend.
When directly quoting from a text, mention the author's name, publication year, and page number (preceded by "p."). Method 1: Begin the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name, followed by the publication year in parentheses. Method 2: Beginning a quotation with the word "that" is common when referring to a statement or opinion in the same document. This is called indirect speech.