Although the initial in-text citation for a book with three to five authors/editors contains all of the names, subsequent citations simply include the surname of the first author/editor, followed by 'et al.' and the year. For example, instead of citing Allport, G.W., Haddon, R.C., & Macdonald, I. (1954), readers should refer to Allport et al. (1954).
In the case of articles with four or more authors, every author listed should be cited in the text. If some are given as anonymous sources, their work should be referenced by page number and date. For example, an article by four authors would be cited on two lines like this: Smith, J., Jones, T., Brown, F., and Alexander, C. (2009). The use of humor in nursing education: A review of the literature. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(3), 137-145.
In the case of articles with only three authors, the first name of the third author is usually omitted from the text of the paper unless it is necessary to distinguish him/her from the other authors. In that case, his/her surname would be added after the second author's surname and a comma would be used (Smith, J., Jones, T., & Alexander, C.).
Articles with one or two authors contain all authors' names in every in-text reference; articles with three, four, or five authors have all authors' names in the first in-text citation but are truncated to the first author's name plus et al.3. In articles with many authors, only the first author is cited in the text but each subsequent citation includes all authors.
Citing multiple authors is not difficult if you use a reference manager that allows for multiple citations. The key here is that you must differentiate between in-text citations and references. An in-text citation refers to something said in the body of the article while a reference refers to sources used to verify information or support an argument.
An in-text citation may be in the form of a quote or paraphrase. This is different from a reference which should be cited in full using footnotes or endnotes. Endnotes are notes at the bottom of pages while footnotes are notes within the text of the article.
To create in-text citations, use the following format: Author's Name. "Blah blah blah". This tells readers that someone else has said this thing called "blah blah blah" and they can look it up later in the reference section (or online).
You may use "et al." from the first mention if there are at least six writers. In all circumstances, use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in your in-text citation.
Three to five writers When citing a work for the first time, list all of the authors: (Ackermann, Benjes-Small, Brainard, Smith, & Vassady, 2009). Use just the first author's name followed by et al. for the first time (Ackermann et al., 2009). Six or more writers Never use all of them in an in-text citation.
A work written by three or more authors In every reference, including the first, use simply the first author's name followed by "et al." unless doing so would cause uncertainty between various sources. Et should not be followed by a period in et al. Only the word "al" should be separated by a period.
In every reference, including the first, use simply the first author's name followed by "et al." unless doing so would cause uncertainty between various sources. Authors' names are usually found at the beginning of each sentence, but sometimes appear at the end for long quotations.
References must be cited in text using the same style as they are used in the reference itself. That is, if the reference uses small letters when referring to the author's name then these should be used in the text too. If the reference includes page numbers then these should be included in the text too. Otherwise, you will need to provide more information for readers to identify authors' names and pages within books or articles.
The best way to ensure that references are correctly cited and therefore not overlooked is to use citation software. There are many free programs available online that can help with this task. See our article on how do you cite the author et al? For more information.
In the bibliography, authors' last names are listed first. If the same author has many works, arrange them alphabetically by title. If a book has four or more writers, use the first author's name followed by "et al." in the remark while listing all of the authors in the bibliography.
An example is provided below. The citation for this article would be: Anderson, E. N. (2016). How do you cite multiple works by the same author in Chicago style? EducationExchange.com.
Give the initial author's name followed by et al. for the parenthetical citation and works cited citation.