Even if your entire paragraph is a paraphrase or summary of one source, citing it solely at the conclusion is not acceptable. You must clearly indicate when your borrowing begins and cite throughout the paragraph as needed to ensure that your reader understands that you are continuing borrowing from the same source.
When formatting citations in APA, how often should authors number each line of their reference list? Should they always do so even if only one item on the line is being cited? What happens if there are two items on the line that both need numbering? How does this affect the page number where the citation appears?
The basic format for all reference lists is author(year published) [title], wherein year published is the date of publication of the work being cited and title is the name of the article, essay, book, etc. That is, include the author's last name and the year of publication followed by the title of the work being cited. This is necessary information for other scholars to identify works by this author and find them in libraries.
In addition to providing these details, the writer should also record the source's physical location (i.e., library) within the document. Although most databases are searchable, not all libraries assign unique numbers to the records they keep so researchers would have no way of knowing which record corresponds to which piece of information unless the location it was found in is known.
A single reference at the conclusion of a paragraph is insufficient unless the final sentence is the sole information in the paragraph derived from the cited source. To minimize unintended plagiarism, cite sources often and appropriately throughout a paragraph.
You must make it apparent where someone else's narration ends and your own words begin. As a result, inserting one reference at the end of a paragraph is NOT APA compliant. To avoid plagiarism, cite each sentence when paraphrasing numerous consecutive sentences from the same source.
If you only use one in-text citation at the conclusion of the paragraph, it may be unclear where the ideas at the beginning came from. As a result, if you quote, summarize, or paraphrase facts and ideas from their work, you must always give credit to the authors. This is called "attributing sources" and it is required by law when writing about works created outside of your own mind (such as books or articles) that are still under copyright protection.
If you have multiple sources for one idea or fact, write them out separately and place each one within its corresponding paragraph. Make sure to give full credits for all sources used, including names, institutions, and websites. You can also include a short note explaining how these sources are relevant to your paper.
At the end of your paper, you should list all the sources you have used with full credits given to each one. Remember, academic papers are usually based on other people's work, so make sure you give credit where it is due.
You do not need to name the source again if you continue to mention the same source in consecutive paragraphs and no other source intervenes, unless uncertainty results. For example, if a newspaper article discusses something that happened at a recent baseball game, you would not need to cite the article again when discussing the game later in the essay.
In addition to the first citation, most sources require subsequent citations as well. For example, if we were writing about efforts to preserve natural habitats and cited an article that discussed this effort, the writer would also need to refer to an encyclopedia or magazine for information on other projects underway or planned for the area. Final thoughts on this topic could be found in another article or report. In this case, we would need to refer back to the original source but would not need to provide another citation.
It is important to remember that sources provide evidence that can help prove or disprove claims made in essays. Without evidence, opinions are just that - opinions - and they cannot be considered fact. Evidence is based on personal experience, observations, facts gathered through research, etc. Different types of evidence allow us to see different aspects of a story. For example, if we wanted to learn more about prejudice and discrimination, one way evidence could help us is by reading stories from people of different races who have experienced it themselves.