The MLA in-text citation style, for example, employs the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is derived, as in: (Smith 163). If the source does not utilize page numbers, omit the number from the parenthetical citation: (Smith).
Citations are usually placed within parentheses at the end of the sentence or phrase to be cited. The abbreviation "in" precedes most citations in print media. In electronic sources, including websites, archives, and journals, the abbreviation "URL" stands for "uniform resource locator," which is the address of a specific location on the Internet where information about the cited work may be found. For example, if you were citing a piece of writing by Susan Smith that was published at http://www.smithfamily.com/index.html, you would type this citation into your essay or paper: http://www.smcfamily.com/index.htmll.
In academic essays, it is customary to include the name of the author followed by the year they published the material referenced. This is called an "author-date" citation. For example, if I were referencing the work of Susan Smith published in 2013, I would say that she is an author who published her work in 2013. There are two types of author-date citations: single-author works and multiple-author works.
The author-page standard is followed by the parenthetical citation or in-text citation in MLA style; it needs both the author's last name and the page number. The example below uses the author-page standard.
The following examples show how to create a parenthetical citation in MLA style using in-text citations and author-page citations. In this case, "Annabel" is the author's last name and "50" is her page number.
In-Text Citations: The book is by Annabel and its title is A Little Book about Caring. (Page 50.)
Author-Page Citations: The book is by Annabel on page 50.
It is important to use the same format for all your citations. If you do not follow these rules, your work will be incorrectly cited.
MLA guidelines state that parentheses should be used only when necessary to avoid altering the meaning of the sentence. They are not for emphasis instead. Use them correctly or not at all.
In-text citation in MLA style is done using the author-page technique. This implies that the author's last name and the page number (s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is derived must be included in the text, and a complete citation must be included on your Works Cited page.
The page number may appear after the quoted material or within the quotation itself, depending on the type of source. Quotations are usually identified by italicized words or phrases that function as both headings and labels for the quotations. These can be found in any of the following forms: quotation marks (e.g., "he said"), footnotes (e.g., "he said this in footnote 1"), endnotes (e.g., "she said this in note 5"), or brackets "he said (that music is beautiful)".
Periodicals such as journals and newspapers include the issue number along with the date in their in-text citations. The issue number is used to distinguish different articles in the same publication. For example, an article about improving your job search would have an issue number of January-February-March etc.
Books do not normally include page numbers in their in-text citations because each book has only one index and each entry in the index will generally lead to multiple pages of text. Thus, it is not possible to derive information about page numbers from indexes.
How do you utilize the MLA author-page citation? The author's last name and page number (s) must appear inside the text and immediately following the direct or indirect citation. A period should follow the page number citation.
The author-page citation should be included in all manuscripts submitted for publication. If an article has been published previously, then the new version should include the date of publication. Failure to provide this information may result in your manuscript being rejected during peer review.
For example, if the author's name is Smith and the article is found on page 10 of a 100-page issue of a journal that requires a total of 5000 words, the citation would look like this: Smith, "A brief history of time." Journal of the History of Science, 1998, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 51-71.
If the author's name is the same as the title of the article, then there is no need for an author-page citation. For example, if the title is An Analysis of Gulliver's Travels and the article was published in a journal with an online version open access, then the reader would find it via a web search using the article's abstract. There would be no need for a physical copy to be mailed to anyone.