Interviews, emails, and other forms of interpersonal communication Personal communications are not included in your reference list; instead, cite the communicator's name, the term "personal communication," and the date of the communication in parentheses solely in your main text. (Personal correspondence, E. Robbins, January 4, 2001).
References used in this article include:
Email references are listed as sent to or received from a given person with their address, if available. If the sender's address is not available, then just give the names of people involved in the communication. Examples: when writing about a conversation with several people, refer to them all by name with the word "interview" followed by their relevant contact information.
When referencing an interview or discussion, use the following format: Interview with John Doe, dated January 4, 2001. The interview was conducted by telephone with Robert Smith regarding Jane Does job searching skills.
Citations for letters and other formal documents follow a similar pattern but with different terminology: "A letter to John Doe dated January 4, 2001 was received by email on January 5, 2001." See also: How can I cite an article I found online?
References should be included at the end of your paper or essay. Follow any journal or magazine style guidelines when formatting your bibliography. The Purdue Owl does not require that each source be cited individually.
You do not include personal communication in your reference list; instead, in your main text, you parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the term "personal communication," and the date of the communication. In this case, because the letter is from a person named Gauge, not from the railroad itself, you would write it in parentheses like this: "(Gauge letter dated )."?
Citing a personal communication is different from citing an article published in a journal or newspaper. In that case, you should include the title of the publication along with its date. For example, if the communication was an article titled "Oversize Trains Are Bad for Business," you would cite it as follows: "Gauge letter dated?, quoting an article titled 'Oversize Trains Are Bad for Business,' published in Railfan & Railroad in 2004."?
It is important to give enough information about the communication for others to locate it again. You can provide a brief description of the communication and where people can find more information about it if necessary. For example, if the communication is an email, you could say something like this: "Gauge letter dated? regarding oversizing trains and their effect on business revenue."?
Personal communications are not included in the bibliography because they cannot be found in any specific place.
Individual e-mail communications should be cited as personal communications. Personal communications are not included in the reference list since they do not give recoverable data. Cite only textual personal messages. Give the communicator's initials and surname, as well as as specific a date as feasible. For example: John Doe (Jan. 12, 2015)
It is acceptable to cite all e-mails received from one source in order to demonstrate a pattern of behavior. In this case, each e-mail would need to be cited individually.
E-mails are different than social media posts because they are stored on a server that can be accessed by anyone who has an account. This means that unless you own the e-mail address you are citing, others may have sent information prior to it reaching you. Email citations allow readers to see what was said directly between individuals and can sometimes provide additional context for their discussions/relationships. Email archives are searchable so they are a useful way to find previous messages from multiple sources quickly. Email citations should include the full text of the message with no omissions. Omitting important details may lead researchers to believe incorrect information. Omitting important details also risks libel issues for publishers. Email is considered the fastest growing source of evidence in legal proceedings today; therefore, it is important to accurately document these conversations.
When writing up social media posts, refer to them by their unique identifier such as URL or hashtag.
Citations in the Text
Include the name of the interviewee, the name of the interviewer, the place and date of the interview, and the location of the transcripts, if appropriate. Include the name of the individual, type of communication, and date when citing chats, e-mails, or text messages (pp. 194-5).
Citing electronic sources is similar to that for other media, with two exceptions: You must provide a source for any information contained within the message itself (e.g., email, chat room post), and you should include the title of the document if it's available.
For example, if you were quoting only part of an email, you would write "Smith said...; here are her reasons..." If you were using the entire email as evidence, you could simply say "Here is the full text of Smith's email:..." Or, if the email was written by someone other than the person being interviewed, you could say "According to Jones, here is what Smith wrote..."
It is acceptable to use quotes around email addresses or phone numbers if doing so does not violate the privacy of those individuals.
The name of the writer; the title of the message; a description of the message, including who it was written to; the date it was delivered; and the mode of delivery should all be included in an email citation. Last, first M. structure Message to [receiver name]. "Re: Title of Message from Subject Line (if any)." Date.
An email reference list is also known as an email bibliography or email list of sources. The term is used when referring to a list of documents that are relevant to a specific topic within the body of an email message. These references can then be easily identified and read later. Email citations are usually simple lists of names and dates, but they can also include page numbers if they're available. Email lists can be created manually by searching through old messages or generated automatically by software programs. There are many different ways to create email citations and email lists, so we'll discuss several common methods below.
Now let's look at some examples of how email citations and lists might look. Next, here is a more detailed example that includes the sender, recipient(s), subject line, body of the message, and date: "Sarah Bartlett wrote on May 15, 2009 at 3:08 PM: "Here is my response to your question.
Person Interviewed's Last Name, First Name "Subject Line of Email" Email Interview Received by the name of the person who received the email. Email Interview by Day, Month, and Year.
In your reference list, under Research Methods, Archives: Electronic Resources, or History: American Periodicals, include IRE = Interview, Report, or Commentary.
If you are including more than one interview in your reference, then list them under multiple subjects (i.e., Children's Books & Media, Cultural History). In this case, the citation would read IRE = Interview, Report, or Commentary. Under each subject heading, list the date range for all interviews included in that section.
You may also want to include a note with the interview citing the source where it can be found, such as an online archive. If so, use the Source Note feature when submitting your paper.
As you can see, there are many different ways to cite an email interview. The best way to find out how others have done it is to read through several examples. Once you have an idea of what elements should be included in your reference, you can choose the method that works best for you.