In-text citations feature the author's last name followed by a page number in parentheses. Here's Smith's exact quote: (p. 8). If the author's name is not mentioned, use the title's initial word or words. Use the same formatting as in the works referenced list, including quotation marks. Formatting tips and examples can be found on our wiki article.
In-text Citation: MLA's in-text citation style employs the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is derived, as in: (Smith 163). If the source does not utilize page numbers, omit the number from the parenthetical citation: (Smith). Alternatively, if you are using the Modern Language Association's Reference Manager software to manage your bibliography or works cited list, then under the Edit menu select Preferences. In the Software Preferences window click on the Index tab and check the box next to Automatically generate in-text citations.
An in-text citation in MLA should include the author's last name as well as the page number of the content you quote or reference. It is frequently placed at the conclusion of the phrase in parentheses. This example shows a typical in-text citation: John Smith (page 541).
In addition to in-text citations, scholars often provide endnotes and bibliographies for further research on their topics. Endnotes are used when referencing specific words or phrases within the text; a footnote is used when referring to a whole section of text.
Endnotes are numbered sequentially. The first note should be labeled "Endnote 1" and the second note should be labeled "Endnote 2." Within the body of the essay or paper, use the word "endnote" to refer to these notes. Avoid using the word "footnote" when referring to endnotes; instead, refer to them by number only.
In endnotes, it is common practice to list relevant books or articles that cover the same topic as your essay. These references will help readers explore other perspectives on the subject and may also serve as sources of additional information not covered in your own work.
MLA requires that each source be listed individually, even if it contains many references back to other works.
The MLA in-text citation style, for example, employs the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is derived (Smith 163). In general, include the word "quot" before the quotation or paraphrase and add the abbreviation "MLA" after it.
There are two methods to achieve this: with a signal phrase, which means the in-text citation will just include the page number(s), or with a parenthetical citation, which includes the author's last name (or the title, in the case of an authorless work) and the page number(s).
When quoting straight from a source, use quotation marks to enclose the cited part. At the conclusion of the quotation, provide an in-text reference with the author's name and page number, such as this: "Here's a direct quote" (Smith 8). Here's a verbatim quotation from the film "Trouble" (22).
References should be in alphabetical order by last name of first author.
For additional information on how to properly cite sources, see our Citing Your Work guide.
In-text citation in MLA style is done using the author-page technique. This implies that you must mention the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is derived in the text, as well as a thorough citation on your Works Cited page.
In general, in-text citations follow these rules: If the source is a book, include the title of the book with the date of publication directly after the word "quotation" or "extract". If the source is an article, review, or interview, include the title of the article, review, or interview with the date of publication directly after the word "quotation" or "extract". If there is no title for the source, place an empty box instead. In any case, include the name(s) of the author(s) along with the date of publication following the word "quotation" or "extract".
When available, in-text MLA citations should contain the author's last name and page number. The citation should come after the quotation but outside of the quoted text. The citation should be in parentheses, with no comma between the author's last name and the page number. The comma is unnecessary. In longer works such as books or articles, provide both the in-text and end-of-paper citations.
In this example, "Where Parker goes beyond other treatments of cinematic poetry is in her analysis of film sound." has been taken from page 32 of Cry, the Beloved Country by Nelson George. The citation for this quote is given correctly as [Nelson George 1932]. See also below for more on how to cite films.
Citations are important in academic writing because they show the reader information about the source. Without a citation, readers cannot find out who, what, when, where, or why. Citing sources helps others know how you have interpreted their work and allows them to build upon your ideas. Also, citing sources shows that you have done some independent research and shows that you are aware of different perspectives on an issue.
According to the Modern Language Association (MLA) guidelines, "when possible, refer to an existing work that addresses itself to the same audience as your own contribution" (Howe 2011).