When you allude to, summarize, paraphrase, or reference another source, provide a parenthetical citation. Every in-text reference in your work must be accompanied by a corresponding item in your Works Cited list. The MLA parenthetical citation style, for example, utilizes the author's last name and a page number; for example (Field 122). It is necessary to include the date in parentheses after the author's name. You should also include the title of the referenced work if it is available.
In addition to the parenthetical citation, you should also identify the source within the text itself. This can be done by repeating the phrase "see page x" where x is the page number. For example, "See page 22 for information on polling research."
It is important to note that publications such as books, journals, and magazines are cited differently than articles. In book and magazine citations, the author's last name is followed immediately by the title. No period is placed after the author's name. Thus, for example, Strunk and White are identified as "Strunk" and "White". Magazine articles are cited in the same way except that they use a semicolon instead of a full stop. So, for example, Jones; Baker and Smith are cited as "Jones; Baker"; Morris and Higgins are cited as "Morris; Higgins". Books have titles pages so they need proper citations regardless of the publication type.
When incorporating a direct quotation into a statement, the source must be cited. The quotation does not appear in the text, but rather in a footnote. Therefore, it must be cited as well.
Parenthetical Citations Examples
The author-page standard is followed by the parenthetical citation or in-text citation in MLA style; it needs both the author's last name and the page number. The example below uses the in-text citation method.
The following examples show how to create a parenthetical citation in your essay using author-page and in-text methods of citation. As you can see, both work equally well.
Using the author-page citation method, include the author's last name and the page number after the quotation. In this case, that would be "Annabel, 5."
Using the in-text citation method, start the citation with the author's name followed by a comma and then the page number. In this case, that would be "author, page."
It is important to use one method only, so if you choose to use the author-page citation method, then you should not use the in-text citation method as well. Similarly, if you decide to use the in-text citation method, then you should not use the author-page citation method.
As you can see, both methods are acceptable in an academic setting and they produce the same results.
In your writing, use parenthetical citations to refer to the works of others. When a sentence contains a quotation or paraphrase, this style includes presenting relevant source information in parenthesis. For example: "The poet John Donne said, 'No man is an island.'"
MLA guidelines recommend using endnotes/bibliography instead of parenthetical citations. Endnotes are available in several different styles, including folio, half-sheet, and quarter-sheet. Select the appropriate style for your sources.
Using parenthetical citations in place of endnotes allows you to provide more detailed information about your sources. This is useful when you want to discuss other aspects of these works besides just their facts and insights. It also allows you to identify specific elements within these sources that you want to focus on in your essay or paper.
When citing books, periodicals, websites, and online resources, use standard English without any additional formatting. Leave out the parentheses and include page numbers if applicable. Remember to follow all citation rules for your specific discipline or area of study.