Remember that the period in "etc." indicates that it is an abbreviation (et cetera), thus the period following the parenthesis is required to complete the full stop. Consider it as if you were composing a sentence: Sentence. (X, Y, Z, et cetera). Sentence.
If the word "etc." appears in the midst of a sentence in American English, it is usually followed by a comma. If, on the other hand, the word "etc." comes at the conclusion of a sentence, the period (which is part of "etc.") functions as the final punctuation mark. For example: "He wrote a book about his experiences, which includes a description of the ascent and its effects etc.".
As a stylistic decision, if your list items are entire sentences, you can grammatically conclude them with a period. Never use commas or semicolons at the ends of vertical list items, and never use "and" or "or" before the last list item. These punctuation marks are used only within list items.
Put a period after the final word of the phrase, followed by the parenthesis, at the conclusion of the quote. Further explanation and examples may be found on pages 174-179 of the APA Manual, 6th edition. Examples of In-Text and Parenthetical Citation Citation Styles: In-Text and Parenthetical The in-text citation is used when citing material found in the very text that you are writing. For example, if you were quoting someone saying "Children should be seen and not heard," an in-text citation would include the quotation along with the name of the speaker (Childhood experiences affect how people think and act) and the date they said it (October 25, 1960). The parenthetical citation is used when citing sources other than the text itself. For example, if I were referencing another study about childhood experiences affecting how people think and act, I might write "According to another study, people who experience violence as children are more likely to commit acts of violence themselves."
In general, use the style that best fits the situation. If you are unsure which style to use, ask your instructor or library staff member for help.
When writing in English (rather than a programming language or mathematics), the norm is to place a space before the opening parenthesis and a space or a punctuation mark after the closing parenthesis. There should be no spaces after the opening or before the closing parenthesis. This is called "parentheses formatting".
In HTML, this means that you should have one space (or no spaces) before the opening parenthesis, followed by another space (or no spaces) after the closing parenthesis.
This is very important for your reader's understanding of the code! If there are no spaces after the opening parenthesis, then they will not know where to look next - the sentence will just keep going forever with no sign of an ending. Similarly, if there are no spaces before the closing parenthesis, then the reader will also not know where to look next - the page will seem empty.
Spaces are useful tools for distinguishing words when reading text quickly. When typing computer code, it is easy to accidentally type two consecutive spaces instead of one, which would mean that there are three characters instead of two. To prevent this from happening, most editors will automatically delete any sequence of three or more spaces.
However, when editing HTML files, it is important to remember that only spaces separate words on a web page.
** Take note that the sentence's punctuation comes after the parentheses. For further information, please see the library's reserve handbook: MLA Manual or AP Style Guide.
When an entire sentence is parenthetical, full stops should be placed inside brackets. In all other circumstances, place full stops outside the closing brackets. This is because when a sentence is bracketed, it is not necessary to indicate where one word ends and the next begins.
Examples: He said "Hello" (to me). She wrote "Love, Jane." (I love you too, Jane.)
Now, "He said 'Hello' to me.'" and "She wrote 'I love you too,' Jane.'" are both correct statements after rewriting the sentences without the parentheses. However, only the first example shows proper punctuation while the second does not. Thus, placing full stops inside parentheses is recommended.
Use just the ellipsis if the sentence is judged unfinished. Use a period and an ellipsis if the sentence is judged complete. The choice of whether to use a period or an ellipsis is up to you.