When citing sources in APA format, use the author-date method. Jones (1998), for example, and a complete citation should be included in the reference list at the conclusion of the work.
Every in-text citation in your article must be accompanied by a reference list item. The APA in-text citation style, for example, employs the author's last name and the year of publication, as in: (Field, 2005). Include the page number for direct quotations, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). In general, use only one form of citation per entry; multiple forms are confusing to readers.
References should be listed in order of appearance, with the most recent publications appearing first. If an author has more than one article that appears in a single volume or journal issue, it is acceptable to list them in order of appearance within the volume or issue. For example, if an author has two articles that both appear in Volume 5 of a series, they could be listed in the reference section like this: (McDonald and Jones, 2006; McDonald, 2002).
It is helpful if you include the title of the book, magazine, newspaper article, etc., in which the cited material appears. This makes it easier for us to locate the source if we need to investigate further. For example, if you were to cite this study on the effectiveness of different types of schools, the reference list would look something like this: (Whitmore, 2004). Check with your school library curator to verify which standards are required for inclusion in the bibliography.
References can be broken down into three basic categories: primary sources, secondary sources, and scholarly journals.
In-text parenthetical citations should include the author's name and year. At the conclusion of each sentence in which you quote or paraphrase information from the website, APA requires an author-year parenthetical. The parenthetical reference is placed inside the sentence's ending punctuation. In this example, the citation would read: According to an article on www.webopedia.com, college students today are less happy than previous generations.
The website article quoted in the preceding example can be found here: www.webopedia.com/TERM/ENL/article_entries/quotable_statement.html.
APA also recommends that you not use footnotes as a way of ending your quotation. Instead, place a short dash at the end of a sentence or phrase that concludes the quotation. This tells the reader that there is more information available elsewhere on the page or in other documents. As with in-text citations, the URL address of the source document should be included after the short dash.
Footnotes are used differently by different writers.
APA In-Text Citation: The author's last name and the year of publication are used in the APA in-text citation style, for example: (Field, 2005). Use a paragraph number for sources that do not contain page numbers, such as websites and e-books. These cannot be cited by page number but instead by using the location within the work.
All information utilized in your paper must be cited whenever and whenever it is used. When mentioning sources in your article, include only the author's last name (no initials) and the year the material was published. If you utilize a direct quote, provide the page number in your reference, like shown: Dodge (2008), p.6 the previous day's weather report.
If you are referring to a website or electronic document, complete web addresses are preferred (www.nasa.gov). However, if this information is not available, cite the URL instead: NASA, www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/index.html. Give as much detail about the source as possible, including who wrote it, when it was written, and what its purpose is.
It is acceptable to refer to an earlier edition of a book for greater depth of discussion or because more recent editions may not be available in some libraries. In such cases, indicate the page number where the reader can find the latest version of the book.
Articles are referenced in the same way, with the exception that the publisher's publication date is not included. For example, An article by Ford on vehicle design would be cited as Ford (1955) rather than Ford (2005).
Works of literature are usually referenced by their title and volume number. For example, Tolstoy's Anna Karenina would be referenced as Tolstoy (1877) 1:2.
Citing a Quote in APA Format In a parenthetical citation, you include all of the material following the quote in parentheses. A narrative citation begins with the author's name (followed by the year) and ends with the page number. In between, there are several options for placement of periods and citations.
If the source is quoted extensively, it is appropriate to use a parenthetical citation. It would look like this: "According to John Doe, who quotes Alice in Bob, page 21 of My Book, 'The best thing about Alice is her shoes.'"
If the source is only mentioned briefly, you can place it within the text of your essay without using a parenthetical citation. For example, instead of writing "John Doe also mentions Alice in his book," you could write "Alice appears in Chapter 3 of John Doe's novel, which discusses characters from Dickens' novels."
It is important to be accurate when citing sources, so make sure that you have correctly identified them before proceeding with citation style.
The in-text citation should appear in the phrase in which the referred information is used: The signal phrase (author's name) appears within the sentence, with the page number in parentheses at the conclusion. At the conclusion of the phrase, the entire parenthetical reference (author's last name and page number) appears. The in-text citation is required for works cited in the bibliography or acknowledgments.
In-text (parenthetical) citations utilizing the name-year format often include the author's last name and the year the reference was published. If the title is italicized in the reference list, it should also be italicized in the in-text citation. The author's last name should appear with no period after it.