When referencing a work with a long title in an in-text citation, use a condensed phrase from the title. Shortening the title should be done with caution so that the reader's ability to identify the source on the Works Cited list is not jeopardized. Using the first few words of the title as a guide, it is permissible to shorten the reference by up to three letters.
In this example, we have cited a book with a long title: The Origins of War A Review of the Historical Evidence. Because "The Origins of War" is a short phrase, it is acceptable to use it in place of the whole title when citing the work.
Long titles are difficult to read and write quickly, so editors usually edit them down for readers and listeners. However, they can be useful in helping readers find sources easily, so they may appear in full in bibliographies and works lists.
If the source title is more than four words long, cut it down to the first word or phrase in the in-text reference, eliminating any articles (a, an, and the). This is called abridging the reference.
Citing sources that do not have an author If the source title is more than four words long, cut it down to the first word or phrase in the in-text reference, eliminating any articles (a, an, and the). The shorter title should begin with the term used to alphabetize the source in the Works Cited. For example, if the source is published under the name "Smith, John," then cite it as Smith et al., using only the first word found in the text.
If you cite two works by the same author, you must include a short title in your in-text citation, and if two or more works by the same author have the same title, you must include extra information so that the reference, while not as concise, is apparent. This is called a "double title" and occurs when authors use the same title for their works.
In this case, the best way to handle double titles is to include both in the in-text citation. Do not list each work individually, even if they are by the same author. Instead, give additional information about the second title. For example: "See also John Doe: His Other Book With The Same Title."
It is important to distinguish between works with identical titles but different authorship groups (for example, A History of America, A History of Americans) or editorial teams (for example, a book series). In these cases, you should provide appropriate additional information when citing the works. For example, if there are three books in the American history series then you should refer to them as "A History of America by John Doe and another author", "An Additional History of Americans By The Same Author As The First Book", or some similar combination thereof.
Double titles can be difficult to distinguish from single titles with multiple authors.
In-text citations feature the author's last name followed by a page number in parentheses. "This is a direct quotation" (Smith 8). If the author's name is not mentioned, use the title's initial word or words. Use the same formatting as in the Works Cited list, including quotation marks. You can also include the location of a source if there is more than one; for example, "The poet John Milton wrote about angels singing and musicians playing their harps while Adam and Eve were expelled from Eden."
In-text citations are required when using information found in other texts. For example, if you use information from one book to explain something in another, you need to give credit to the original writer with an in-text citation. In this case, "John Milton described angels as singing and musicians playing their harps while Adam and Eve were expelled from Eden in his 1667 poem Paradise Lost."
Citations are also necessary when using figures from history books. For example, if you were to say that Abraham Lincoln had an effect on world peace, you would need to provide evidence that he did indeed have this influence - without citing any sources. This is called "argumentative writing" and it means that your essay has a specific purpose behind it. As you can see, citations are important for written pieces like essays that use information from different sources to support a single argument.
"The title of this article is 'This is a direct quotation.'" (8).
In addition to the author's last name and page number, in-text citations also require the year published if it is different than when the essay is written. For example, if the essay is written now but the article was published 10 years ago, then the in-text citation should read "published 10 years ago." Although it is acceptable to leave out the year for articles that are very recent, such as those published in weekly newspapers or online journals, it is best to be consistent and include it even if the date is already known.
Finally, in-text citations require the source page number for articles that contain multiple pages. For example, if an article is divided into two sections on separate pages, then you need to provide both the author's last name and page number for each one. "Smith 8-9" or "Smith (1998) 8-9." (8-9) Only the first page of the article should be cited; any further pages can be found under the entry for Smith in your bibliography or reference list.
In-text citations often contain the author's last name and the page number where the material was discovered. If the source does not provide page numbers, you can just use the author's name. If the author's name is unavailable, use the source's title in the citation instead. Database entries are identified by their names or abbreviations.
In addition to the publisher's instructions, most databases have instructions for how to format citations. These usually include whether single or double spaces should be used after an opening parenthesis, how quotation marks should be handled, and so on. Check with your library for specific requirements as well as further information on database formats.
Citations in text: The "in-text" citation is the standard way of citing sources within the body of the essay or article. It consists of two parts: the author's surname and the date of publication if known, or the date of access if not.
A short form citation might be used to indicate a case that has already been referenced in its entirety. The court and date are typically removed, and a precise citation is provided. The shorter term, on the other hand, must be clear and quickly identify the situation in question. Using the term "short" in a citation means that you are referencing an entire case, not just a few sentences from it. Short citations are most commonly used when citing multiple cases from the same court file or series.
Citing only a portion of a case is called splitting your sentence. This makes it difficult for others to find information in your reference list. It is best to use a short citation whenever you are referring to more than one case from the same court file or series.
Short citations are useful when you want to refer to many cases with a single reference. For example, if you are writing about a case involving several arguments for and against class actions, you could refer to it as "the short case" or "that case where we discussed... " When using a short citation, make sure that the term is unambiguous. If it's not, readers may have trouble finding your source material.