When typing, use commas, periods, and question marks inside the quote marks (like the examples above). The primary exceptions are 1. semicolons and 2. colons. These two punctuation marks are used in place of quotes when the text preceding or following the mark needs to be interpreted differently than its regular meaning.
Semicolons are used between paragraphs, sentences, and words within a sentence. They should be used even if the text appears to be single-spaced because they add clarity to the writing style. Avoid using multiple semicolons unless it is necessary. Colonizers often used them in their writings to indicate a change in tone or direction. Today, we use questions marks instead.
Colons are used as separators within paragraphs and sections of documents. They can also be used after short phrases such as who, which, when, where, why, or how to introduce a subsequent topic or idea. Like semicolons, avoid using too many colons in one piece of writing; otherwise, it becomes difficult to understand what you are trying to say.
Finally, periods are used at the end of quotations, lists, and chapters. If you are giving another author credit for their work, then you should include their name along with the date that you read or heard about them.
Titles with proper punctuation
If the titles are book titles, it is not suggested to use italics or quotation marks around them. However, if you are referring to specific elements of a book, such as book chapters or merely a portion of the title, use quote marks. For example: The Great Gatsby "by F. Scott Fitzgerald."
You can also use signals in endnotes. These are notes written within the text of your essay that serve to call attention to certain words, phrases, or topics. They are usually placed at the bottom of pages upon which they refer. Endnotes are useful for highlighting major points within the text or providing additional information relevant to the topic at hand.
Signals may also be applied to headers or footers. A header is a short sentence or phrase that appears at the top of each page of a book or manuscript. A footer is a short statement printed at the end of each page of an article or section of a book. Headers and footers can be used to identify characters in the story, important events that happen throughout the book, or any other topics pertinent to the work.
Finally, signals can be used to indicate changes in tone or style. These may include such indicators as quotations marks for quoted material, dashes for internal dialogue, and parentheses for explanatory details.
Full-text titles, such as books or newspapers, should be italicized. Poems, articles, short tales, and chapters should have their titles in quotation marks. If the name of the book series is italicized, titles of volumes that create a greater body of work may be put in quotation marks. For example: "The Lord of the Rings" is a series of three novels by J.R.R. Tolkien. Each volume has been labeled with a number to distinguish it from the others. Volumes in trade editions are printed on matching paper with identical cover designs; thus they can be interchanged. Paperback reprints use different covers so as not to confuse readers.
Titles of paintings, drawings, photographs, and other works of art are usually set in roman type. However, if the work is part of a series, such as a biography or collection of essays, it may be titled in italics after the series name. For example, "A History of Art" is the title of a series of textbooks published by Wiley-Blackwell. The individual volumes within the series are not titled; instead, they are identified only by page number.
Prefixing or suffixing a chapter title with a hyphen or some other punctuation mark is up to you. Either method is acceptable. It is important when using punctuation to be consistent throughout your text.