In most literary studies, it is preferable to utilize short, exact citations rather than excessively extensive excerpts. To punctuate the quotation, use single inverted commas ("") or double quotation marks (""). Just keep the same punctuation mark and don't switch between the two. Use a space after the closing parenthesis of the citation but not after the opening one.
To indicate where the quote begins and finishes, use single quotation marks at the beginning and conclusion of the quote. Unless you wish to highlight or emphasize a single phrase in the statement, quotes should not be italicized, underlined, or emboldened. If necessary for clarity, however, quotes can be placed in bold.
Prolonged quotations Place quotes longer than four lines of prose or three lines of verse in a free-standing block of text and avoid quotation marks. Begin the quotation on a new line, with the full quotation indented 1/2 inch from the left margin and double-spaced. End the quotation with a full stop followed by two spaces.
For example: "Friedrich Nietzsche is known for his aphorisms, which are short sentences that summarize a big idea. It can also be a concise paragraph that expresses an idea firmly and clearly, as in Albert Einstein's explanation of how gravity works 'Energy and matter are equivalents'. There is no single right way to write an essay, but these guidelines will help you create a great paper.
Including Quotations in Sentences
Quotes with Correct Punctuation
Put quote marks around the names of short poems, song titles, short tales, magazine or newspaper articles, essays, speeches, chapter titles, short films, and TV or radio program episodes. In indirect or block quotes, do not use quotation marks.
Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented 1/2 inch from the left margin while maintaining double-spacing. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain the original line breaks. (You should maintain double spacing throughout your essay.)
To start a quoted passage, press the Return key then type the opening quotation mark ("). Next, type the paragraph indentation (1/2 inch) followed by a tilde (~). Finally, type the end quotation mark (").
To finish the quotation, press the Return key again and type the closing quotation mark.
To add a parenthetical citation, begin with the word in parentheses this example uses my school's name: "Smithson (2002)":
Press the Return key then type the opening quotation mark (". ) followed by two forward slashes (//). Type the text of the citation immediately following the last sentence in the excerpt ("Smithson 2002" in this case). Finally, type the closing quotation mark.
To add another parenthetical citation, begin with the word in parentheses ("another" in this example): Press the Return key then type the opening quotation mark (". ) followed by three forward slashes (//). Type the text of the citation immediately following the last sentence in the excerpt ("another" in this case).
If you are just listing quoted items, such as those on a computer menu, the commas should be placed outside the quotes. The method I learnt, which is not the only correct one, is to include commas and full stops (periods) within quotation marks even if they were not there in the original section being quoted. So, for example, "You can't say anything in life without getting into trouble" would look like this: "You can't say anything in life, without getting into trouble." This means that even if the original text did not have punctuation inside its quotations, so it could have been written as one long sentence with no breaks anywhere, we would still need to put punctuation inside our own quotations or else our page would not make any sense.
The most important thing to remember when quoting from other people's words is to give them credit by including their name along with the date. For example, if I was writing about Gandhi, I would say something like this: "Gandhi believed that the truth is powerful and will always win out in the end. He fought for what he believed in, and using his unique way of non-violence, was able to inspire others to follow him down this same path."