This part should be included at the end of your paper. The references should be arranged alphabetically by the last name of the first author, or (if no author is specified) by the organization or title. If you reference more than one paper by the same first author, arrange them chronologically, beginning with the most recent year. Citations should not be made in footnotes. Use full citations with publication data such as volume number, page numbers, and date published.
Example: At the end of my paper, I would include the following reference list: Miller, J. (2009). Research methods for psychologists. New York, NY: Wiley-Blackwell.
Entries in the reference list should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. List the items in chronological order, from earliest to most recent, for several articles by the same author or writers listed in the same order. Include full titles and publication dates as known thematically or otherwise relevant to the body of the text.
Lists of references are required by many journals in which case they must be included in the manuscript. They can also be included in a separate file called a bibliography or reference list. Using these lists it is possible to identify works by authors, books by publishers, and so on. The term "bibliography" comes from the French word meaning "book list". In modern usage, a bibliography is any list of sources used by scholars in their work.
References should be written in accordance with any style guidelines followed by your journal. However, there is one basic rule for writing references: Put the most important information first. All else follows naturally from there. For example, if you are referencing a book then the title gives a good indication of what will follow in the reference. If you are referencing an article then the date it was published is important.
References can be single entries or multiple entries. A single reference entry is made up of two parts: the citation and the annotation.
You must mention your sources in the text of your work in addition to a list of references at the conclusion of your paper. Include the author(s)' last name and the year of publication when paraphrasing or referencing someone else's work. Also include page numbers for more detailed information.
When citing sources, it is important to give credit where it is due. If you use another person's idea without acknowledging them, they could file a copyright infringement claim against you. Similarly, if you use an uncited source, you should indicate its importance by quoting it and explaining why it is significant. Failure to do so may result in your paper being rejected as non-scholarly material.
Citations are usually placed at the end of papers, but they can also be included in abstracts, introductions, or discussions. In general, the more important the source, the further back in the paper it should be cited. For example, if you were writing about Abraham Lincoln, there would be no need to refer to other works by him because everything he said or did was significant in its own right. However, if his life was not significant apart from what he said, then citations of other writers' works would be appropriate.
In academic papers, citations are used to verify the accuracy of information and to show how ideas developed over time by different people are related to each other.
All information utilized in your paper must be cited whenever and whenever it is used. When mentioning sources in your work, use only the author's last name (no initials) and the year the material was published. When using a direct quote, provide the page number in your reference, such as this: (Dodge, 2008, p. 2). Within your own work, references to sources appear just like any other word; for example, (Dodge 1998) or (Dodge, 1998).
References are important because they give credit to others who have worked before you. If someone has already researched and written about something, you should cite them! Always check with your instructor first before referencing any material from outside sources.
In addition to providing credit to others, references are also important when trying to replicate experiments or look at variations on a theme. For example, if you were to repeat an experiment that was previously done by another researcher, you would want to make sure that you get the same results. This shows that the previous research was successful and could be repeated by others, or that there was some problem with the original study that prevented it from giving reliable results. References allow you to see what other people have done, which can help guide your own research.
There are two main types of references: primary and secondary. Primary sources are those that discuss or describe the topic under review. These include books, journals, and magazines.