All information utilized in your paper must be cited whenever and whenever it is used. When mentioning sources in your article, include only the author's last name (no initials) and the year the material was published. When using a direct quote, provide the page number in your reference, such as this: (Dodge, 2008, p. 3).
If you are referring to more than one source, list them with an abbreviation list at the end of your article. Remember that editors may request that you remove references if they feel like it could distract from the flow of the article.
In addition, there are several ways that sources can help support your arguments in an essay. For example, if you are writing about how climate change will affect the environment, looking at past events such as ice ages or desertification can help prove your point. Sources also can give credibility to your ideas by providing evidence that someone else has found interesting or important. For example, reading about other people- scientists, activists, politicians- who believe that climate change is real and needs to be stopped can help give your own opinion weight.
Finally, sources can be helpful for finding out more information about a topic. For example, if you were writing about environmental issues in China, looking at data from Chinese government agencies would be useful. The World Bank website contains lots of information about different countries' economies so checking out their site would be beneficial before writing about developing nations.
Making Use of In-Text Citations
Please use the following conventions when referencing a reference from your reference list: In parenthesis, separate the author(s) last names, the year, and optionally the page number(s). Use the author's last name and year separated by a comma for one author. For instance, (Walters, 1994) or (Austin, 1996). If the reference is to a series of articles by the same author, include the author's surname followed by O-R, as in (Ormrod, 2000). If there is more than one contributor to a work, include all authors' surnames except for the first one. Thus, (Harrison and Hughes, 1995) but not (Hughes and Harrison, 1995).
References should be cited in full using these rules, with the exception of anonymous works (such as newspapers) or works by established writers whose lives are well known, such as Shakespeare or Darwin. In these cases, only the title and date are needed for identification purposes (an example of a proper reference list entry would be "Darwin, 1859)."
The easiest way to reference a quote is to place it in quotations marks. For example, if I were quoting myself, I could say "I like my eggs over easy" or even just "Eggs over easy." You must use both quotes because there are two words that are actually being quoted: "I" and "eggs." Using only one set of quotation marks makes this reference incorrect.
A reference inside the text to a table, graph, diagram, or other piece of data derived from a source should contain the author, date, and page number in brackets so that the reader can identify the material. If the author has already been identified in the text, just the publication year and page number need to be included in brackets. For example, (Adams 2007, 23) would indicate that information on recent bird sightings was obtained from a list published by Adams.
The reference should not appear until the end of the paper or article, because readers may want to read more relevant material about your topic. Using footnotes or endnotes as references is common practice in academic writing. These devices allow readers to find out more information about their interests quickly through browsing rather than reading every word of the paper or article. They are also useful for referring back to materials mentioned in the body of the text.
Footnotes are notes written at the bottom of pages of a book or journal. The term is also used for similar notes in articles and papers. A footnote should include the footnote marker (such as * or #), the footnote text, and a closing parenthesis. Footnotes should be placed at the bottom of pages where they are referred to in the text.
Endnotes are notes taken at the end of chapters or sections of books. They are used instead of footnotes because they don't interrupt the flow of the text.
Answer: You must cite any material you take from a source, even if it is in the introduction of your article. Citing sources helps readers determine how reliable each source is and allows them to make their own judgments about the quality of information found in each one.
Keep in mind:
Cite the author(s), year of publication, and page number where the quotation occurs in your source, and use quotation marks to indicate where the cited text begins and finishes. To separate components within the parenthetical reference, use commas. For example, (Whitman, 1855) is written as one citation with two entries in the bibliography: Whitman, Walt (1855). Leaves of Grass. New York: D. Appleton. Reprinted Boston: Beacon Press, 1992.
References are found in the Bibliography section of your article or book. They should be listed in order of appearance, so be sure to follow a standard format when preparing yours. Include the author's last name, year published, title of the work, place of publication, and page number where the quotation appears.
It is not necessary to list books in print, but if they are important to your argument you should include them. Periodicals such as journals and newspapers can be listed in three ways: by editor, by volume number, or by issue number. If you are writing about many different subjects, it may help to divide your reference list into subject categories or folders on your computer. That way you can quickly find any piece of information you need.
In general, words that appear in quotes within the text of your article are referred to as direct quotations.