In-text citations for sources with one, two, or three authors should include all author names (whether footnotes or author-date). Use the first name followed by "et al." for sources with four or more authors. List up to ten authors in your Chicago style reference list or bibliography. Author-year citations are also acceptable for sources with four or more authors.
For example, if you were referencing some research that identified several factors affecting employee retention and then went on to discuss how one company was able to outperform its competitors by adding a second factor to its model, you would cite the research as follows: Jones et al. (2012) and Boyce (2013).
If you were instead referring to information presented in a single source but wanted to make sure readers knew it came from more than one article, you could reference it like this: Jones et al. (2012) and Boyce (2013), who both suggest adding second factor to retention model.
References can be added in end notes, brackets, or parentheses at the end of your paper. Follow any special instructions your school's academic writing center gives you about font styles, page numbers, etc. If you are using a computer program to write your paper, look for a citation tool online or in your program's documentation.
Once you have cited a source, it is important to refer to it throughout your essay.
If a source includes three or more authors, the first author's name should be mentioned in the citation, followed by the phrase "et al." Citations for example: The need of constant citations in a document was emphasized (Jones et al., 2011).
For a study that reports on research performed by several teams, each team is considered a separate source. Therefore, when citing multiple sources, list them all with a comma between each one. For example: The need for constant updates on software programs was stressed by Jones and his colleagues (2011). Jones et al. (2011) reported on the results of studies conducted by several teams. This means that there are three sources in this example: The need for constant updates on software programs, cited by Jones et al. ; the results of studies conducted by several teams, cited by Jones et al. ; the research performed by several teams, cited by Jones et al.
It is acceptable to use abbreviations in citations if they are well-known and the full form cannot be included without increasing the length of the reference list. Examples include US for United States and UK for United Kingdom. If the abbreviation is not well-known, it is better to provide the full form in the text and then cite it using its short form in the reference list. For example, rather than writing "USA" in the text, write "United States of America" and then refer to it as "USA".
When citing sources with three to five authors, name all of them the first time and use "et al." only in future cites. Use "et al." from the first citation for sources with six or more authors. For sources with three or more authors, always use "et al." in MLA format. This holds true for both in-text and Works Cited citations.
Examples: (3-5 author sources) George Washington wrote many letters during his time as president. One letter written to Mr. Fairfax is an excellent example of Washington's leadership style. It is called "Letter from George Washington to Sir William Fitzhugh" and was written on December 14, 1789. (6+ author source) Many scholars have studied Abraham Lincoln's views on slavery. An example is John W. Blassingame who published an article about him in 1972. (3+ author source) Et alia autem fere omnes qui in hac re conscripti sint, id est, hominum genus, feruntur esse divinitus.
Translation: And others, such as those cited above, who are included in this review, they are all said to be divine.
When citing a source with two authors, list them both in APA Style in-text citations. Cite the first author followed by "et al." when there are three or more writers. The use of "et al." in the reference list is not recommended by APA. Instead, list up to 20 writers in their entirety. If you want to include more than 20 writers, start listing names again at 21st writer.
Include the first author and then 'et al.' in the in-text citation of a book having eight or more authors. Include the names of the first six writers, then three ellipses and the last author's name in the Reference List. For example, (Taylor, Et Al.).
Give the initial author's name followed by et al. for the parenthetical citation and works referenced citation.
If you are citing a single source, use "et al." only if there are three or more authors listed. If the author list is small, it's acceptable to use "and others," but this should not be done with multiple sources.
Et alia is also acceptable language to use instead of et al., but only if you are citing more than three sources.
Sources with four or more authors should never be cited using "et al.," even if they are relevant to your paper. Such sources should always be cited as Et Al. (or Et An.)
The use of "et al." when citing multiple sources is common practice in academic writing. It indicates that you are including other researchers' work in your own discussion or analysis. Although it may seem obvious, making sure that you use "et al." correctly goes a long way toward ensuring that others understands how you are integrating their work into your own arguments.