Citations occur in the text in brackets in Harvard style. An in-text citation includes the author's last name, the year of publication, and, if applicable, a page number. Harvard in-text citations can include up to three authors. When there are four or more authors, the citation is abbreviated as et al. and indicates that those are the only names on the paper.
In-text citations are used by academic editors to identify sources that support an argument or evidence presented in the main body of the article. Using in-text citations allows editors to avoid publishing errata slips for removed references or correcting errors made by authors when writing original papers. Readers can also use in-text citations to find additional information about studies included in research reviews or surveys. For example, if you are conducting a review of cancer research studies and come across one that is relevant but not listed in your bibliography or reference list, you could include its' citation within the text of your article.
In addition to in-text citations, researchers may provide full citations at the end of their articles. Full citations include the author's last name, the year of publication, and the title of the study with its' corresponding page numbers. They are used by readers to find other works by the same author(s) or research group.
Academic journals usually require that authors include a bibliography or reference list at the end of their articles.
In-text citations should appear everywhere you cite or paraphrase a source in your writing, directing the reader to the whole reference. For example, the following citation appears in the text: Blum, L. (2009). This is how you cite a book review.
Citations are important tools for readers to follow evidence about the cited material. When they cannot find the cited material, they will not be able to evaluate its relevance to their own interests. A well-referenced article is easier for others to read and understand because they know where to look if they want more information about a topic.
The best place to insert in-text citations is immediately after quoting or paraphrasing from the source. If the quotation or paraphrase takes up more than one line, then use footnotes instead. Footnotes are notes at the bottom of the page containing the citation. They are useful for long quotations or phrases that don't fit on one line.
Inserting in-text citations may not be obvious to everyone. If you are having trouble figuring out where to put these elements in your essay, take out everything from the quoted sentence except the citation.
Another common citing style that employs the author-date system for in-text citations is the Harvard referencing style. In-text citation: It includes the authors' last name and the year of publication (as well as page numbers if directly cited) in round brackets within the text. For example, (Bourne, 2000, p. 91). Out-of-text citation: The preferred method for citing sources outside of the text is via endnotes. Endnotes are numbered sequentially and included at the end of the paper or manuscript. They provide readers with information about where to find further details on a topic.
In addition to the author-date system, the Harvard referencing style also uses a third type of citation called a parenthetical citation. Parenthetical citations are used when a reader might be interested in finding out more about an idea or concept mentioned in the text but doesn't want to read beyond the section heading or figure caption. For example, he or she could be interested in reading more about mental illness but doesn't want to go beyond chapter 5. A parenthetical citation would look like this (chapter 5).
Finally, the Harvard referencing style allows for multiple references to be listed under a single category. For example, one could cite both Bourne (2000) and Bourne (2003) under "psychology" because each work covers a different but related topic within the field. Multiple citations of this kind should be separated by commas.