The footnote number comes just after the term to which the footnote citation refers. If the footnote reference is for a paragraph, put the footnote number just after the last punctuation mark. If the reference is to a section of the text, place it after the title of the section but before any further sections or paragraphs.
Footnotes are used to provide references and documentation related to the topic at hand. They are placed at the end of a paper or article and include information such as page numbers, authors' names, titles, journals, etc. Footnotes are commonly used in academic papers but also appear in books, magazines, and other media sources.
The basic format for a footnote is a numbered sentence that includes a citation. The sentence should be aligned with the rest of the paragraph/text on which it stands. Typically, it begins with the word "footnote" or "references", depending on the purpose of the note. Sometimes, especially in books, citations may occur multiple times in a single piece of writing. In such cases, different approaches can be taken to indicate each occurrence of the citation. Options include footnoting, endnotes, and inline citations.
Insert the insertion point at the location where you wish the footnote reference number to appear. Select Insert Footnote from the Type menu. The text of the footnote appears in the Document Notes section of the Toolbar.
Footnote or endnote numbers in the text should be inserted after punctuation and ideally at the end of a phrase. When quoting a quotation, the number should occur at the conclusion of the quotation rather than after the author's name, which should be first in the text. A parenthetical remark or explanation that interrupts the flow of the text should be placed in a separate footnote. These are examples of proper placement for footnotes.
Footnotes can be placed at the bottom of the page on which they occur, or they can be placed on a separate page following the reference page in sequential sequence. Footnote numbers should be superscripted in the text of your document and should come after any punctuation (except a dash). A space should exist between the footnote number and the note itself.
In the example below, the footnote is noted with “fn” and is found on page 5. It contains two paragraphs.
Some sources recommend placing footnotes with a single paragraph at the end of a chapter or article. While this is acceptable, it is not required by most publishers.
Finally, don't forget to use a source list at the end of your paper. This includes listing all the references that you've used in the paper.
These are just some of the many tools available to help produce quality notes and citations. We hope you find these instructions useful as you prepare your own papers.
Footnotes should be inserted on the same page as the text they accompany. Footnote numbers are normally put in superscript at the conclusion of a sentence. If you're referring to a specific word, put the footnote number right after it. If the word is part of a longer phrase, place the number at the end of the paragraph instead.
In a brief article, especially an encyclopedia entry or a magazine article, footnotes are commonly used for additional information or references. In these cases, the usual style is to provide a short explanation at the end of the article or entry explaining what the footnotes are for and then give each one in turn with its corresponding reference number.
Law footnotes are different from other kinds of footnotes in two important ways. First, while most others are placed at the end of a page, law footnotes are usually placed at the end of a paragraph. Second, law footnotes are not referenced in the text itself, but rather in the index or bibliography at the back. They are therefore more like labels than references.
The basic form of a law footnote is a single sentence that gives the footnote number and explains what it is. For example: "Number 4 refers to the federal income tax statute, 26 U.S.C. § 6013(e).
When a footnote must be inserted at the conclusion of a sentence, place it after the period. With the exception of one piece of punctuation—the dash—numbers representing footnotes should always appear after punctuation. This is true even if the footnote text repeats part of the sentence being cited.
They are referred to as "footnotes" but that term is also used for notes within the body of the essay/paper. The word "endnote" specifically refers to a note placed at the end of a legal brief.
Footnotes are useful tools for referencing material that cannot be cited directly. For example, you may need to reference an article that does not cite all its sources or includes information that cannot be included in the main body of the paper. Footnotes can also provide extra context for the reader if they refer to material located elsewhere in the document or another piece of writing by the author.
The use of footnotes is common in academic writing but may cause confusion when writing for a general audience. While readers will generally understand that citations in the body of the essay are required, those outside the text may assume that footnote references include sources not relevant to the argument or analysis of the paper. If your instructor requires you to remove all footnotes from your work you will need to follow this policy.