Prolonged quotations Direct quotes of 40 words or more should be included in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, with quotation marks omitted. Begin the citation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, just as you would a new paragraph. The quotation should be centered within the column.
When writing an essay in which you use a long quotation, it is necessary to provide a reference for the quotation. If you are quoting someone else's work, you must give credit where it is due. For your own work, however, you do not need to identify yourself as the source if you are only referring to it indirectly through another writer or text.
The easiest way to provide a reference for a long quotation is to include it in your bibliography or works cited page. If the source is well known, you can simply refer to it by name; if not, you may have to provide further information to identify it accurately. For example, if you were to cite Thomas Hardy's poem "The Dark Ages: A Study of the Literature of the Period," without providing any additional information such as the title or volume number, then students could assume that you were referring to actual history rather than poetry.
As you can see, although long quotations are useful tools for getting your point across in an essay, they can also be problematic if you don't know how to handle them correctly.
Prolonged quotations (block quotes) Omit quotation marks and place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines. Begin the citation on a new line, five spaces in from the left margin. You can also cite multiple passages on one page by using paragraph marks.
Long quotations (in-text citations) Within the body of the text, include references to quoted material by author and page number. Long quotations may not be broken up across pages or separated by illustrations or photographs. Use footnotes or endnotes instead. A general rule is that every line of the excerpt should not exceed about 30 words.
Short quotations (within parentheses) Within the body of the text, use short quotations ("He said, 'I dislike her.' ") either alone or within paragraphs. Always include the source information for these quotations. Short quotations are usually not cited in the reference list because they are only used within the body of the text.
Quotations within quotations (internal quotations) Internal quotations are quotations contained in quotations. For example, "The apple fell on the ground when God said let there be light." Here, the first sentence is a quotation, while the second sentence explains what happened after God said let there be light.
Single-sentence quotations A single sentence contains a single thought expressed in a single phrase or word.
Omit quotation marks and place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines. Put the date at the end of the quotation.
Prolonged quotations Place quotes longer than four lines of prose or three lines of verse in a free-standing block of text and avoid quotation marks. Begin the quotation on a new line, with the full quotation indented 1/2 inch from the left margin and double-spaced. End the quotation with a full stop followed by two spaces.
For example: "Jones said that 'all men dream, but not equally.' Keats wrote, 'Beauty is truth, truth beauty.'" You can see that Keats' statement is longer than Jones's, so it requires its own paragraph. Also note that both statements are single sentences, so they should be separated by commas.
It is recommended to use this method for lengthy quotations because it makes them stand out from the rest of the essay.
Long quotations can also be referred to as summaries if they cover multiple topics or ideas. In this case, begin each quotation with a topic or idea and then conclude with another one. For example: "The first thing we need to understand about dreams is that they are not signs but rather symbols. Jones said that 'all men dream, but not equally.' Keats wrote, 'Beauty is truth, truth beauty.'" Here, the first quotation explains that dreams are representations of something else and the second one says that poetry is beautiful when it expresses truths about life.
End the quotation with another new line, but this time indenting 1/2 inch from the right margin.
For shorter quotations, place within normal paragraphs and include any proper attribution. These can be displayed using single quotes ('"') or code quotes (").
When writing about books or authors, use complete titles for greater readability. For example, write "A Room With A View", not just "Room".
Use words of at least two letters except for proper names and foreign words. Use sentences rather than paragraphs as quotes. Avoid technical terms unless you explain them to readers who aren't familiar with the field.
Don't use single quotes inside quotations. Code quotes are perfectly fine.
Prose quotes of more than 50 words should be formatted as a single-spaced block quotation. Leave a blank line before and after the quotation and indent it from the left margin. Use no quotation marks. In academic articles, these quotations are often called "long quotations."
To format multiple lines of quoted material, separate each line with a hyphen or some other punctuation mark. For example, to include an excerpt from a book, write: "The following is an example of effective writing found in John Quincy Adams's 1844 presidential campaign biography-A Life of George Washington:"
Citing long quotations can be difficult because they usually don't include page numbers. If you cannot locate page numbers when you copy the text, look for keywords that will help you find its location later. For example, if the quotation is part of a chapter titled "Effective Writing," then search for that keyword in order to identify where else in the chapter it may appear.
In academic papers, these long quotations are often cited in the body of the paper using endnotes or bibliographies. Endnotes are placed at the end of the paper, separated by a full stop (.), and are numbered consecutively throughout the document.
Prolonged quotations (block quotes) Begin the citation on a new line, five spaces in from the left margin. The first line of any succeeding paragraph inside the quotation should be indented five spaces from the new margin, and the whole quotation should be typed on the new margin. Continue to use double spacing. End on a full stop or comma.
Citations within block quotes are treated as regular endnotes. You should type the reference number at the beginning of each line of the quotation that contains its citation. The reference list should be placed at the end of your essay or article, in the order in which they are cited in the text. Use bullet points to make it easy to follow along as you write.
In addition to the above guidelines, references should be presented in a consistent format, with standard abbreviations for names of publications, journals, and conferences. The style manual provides guidance on how to format these labels, including sentence case for first word, no punctuation after the initial publication, and inclusion of the authors' last name plus date. In general, follow the examples given in the manual.
References should be limited to articles, books, reviews, or conference papers that have been published in reputable journals or conferences. They may also include unpublished materials such as dissertations or abstracts with appropriate acknowledgment. If you use materials from the Internet, libraries, or friends, give credit where it is due.