Your in-text citation should mention both authors: the original source's author(s) and the secondary source's author(s). As an example (Habermehl, 1985, as cited in Kersten, 1987). You should include the secondary source's information in your reference list (the source you read). Generally, only sources that are considered important enough to merit inclusion in your bibliography will receive citations.
There are two types of secondary sources: primary and analytical. In this case study, we're looking at primary sources.
A primary source is the actual document that created the data being studied. For example, if you were studying presidential elections, then the documents that would be considered primary sources are the presidents' inaugural addresses and their campaigns' platforms. Secondary sources are articles that discuss the data in the primary source; for example, a review of the president's first annual address.
Analytical sources use statistics to analyze data from other sources or research studies. Analytical sources can help us understand how elements within the primary source relate to one another. For example, an analytical source on presidential elections could discuss voting trends over time between states with different political climates. Primary sources are always necessary to fully understand a topic; however, using secondary sources can help fill in gaps in knowledge about a subject.
When writing citations for primary and analytical sources, it's important to distinguish which part of the source is most relevant to the paper.
This advice has been updated from the sixth version. When citing a secondary source, follow these steps: Include an item in the reference list for the secondary source you utilized. Identify the primary source in the text and write "as cited in" the secondary source.
The title of the source work should be in the body of your article. Then, include the last name of the secondary source's author, followed by the year of publication. Make a comma appear between the author's name and the publishing date.
Include a reference to the source you read in your reference list. Because it is one step away from the original source of the concept or statement, this is referred to as a secondary source. Name the original work and include a citation for the secondary source in your text. For example, if the quote came from a magazine article, refer to it as such with an explanation that the quote comes from such-and-such a magazine issue published last year.
Citing a direct quote can be difficult because there's no way to know where the quote will appear in the text. If you're writing a paper in which you use several sources to support your arguments, be sure to identify them all. You should also try to distinguish your own opinions on the topics discussed in the sources you use from the facts themselves. This makes it easier to avoid plagiarism issues down the road.
As long as you give credit where it is due, there's no problem with citing a direct quote from a secondary source. In fact, doing so shows that you were able to find another way to support your argument that may not have been apparent from just reading the primary source itself!
What is a secondary source or indirect citation?
When the authors of two independent books in your Works Cited list have the same surname, include the author's first initial in the in-text citation. (H. Smith 34).
When the ideas of one author are written in the text of another author but you have not read or accessed the original author's work, this is referred to as an indirect citation or secondary source. In the in-text citation, provide both the original author and the author of the book where the quote/idea was located. For example, if the idea came from article "A Survey of My Literature Class," then the in-text citation would look like this: "Survey of My Literature Class" (Allen, 1994).
Indirect citations are often difficult for readers to interpret because they do not indicate which chapter or section of the citing work the quotation or idea comes from. To help readers understand these citations better, some books include page numbers in the in-text citation. This way, readers can go back to the place in the citing work where the idea originated if they want to explore it further.
Books that include page numbers in their in-text citations are more useful than those that do not. However, only a few books are able to do this because it requires additional time and money to print page numbers on each page. Therefore, unless page numbers are necessary for clarity purposes, we recommend against including them in your own work.
In addition to direct quotations from other authors, textbooks often contain paraphrased information or ideas. When writing about concepts or topics that appear in multiple contexts, it can be helpful to mention other sources where those ideas were expressed previously.
When there is no identified author for a source, the Works Cited item will begin with the title of the source. Use the complete name of the source as a signal phrase for the in-text citation, or use a portion of the phrase in parentheses. For example, a book without an author named "The Benefits of Being a Beast" would have its title used as the signal phrase and would be cited thus: "The Benefits of Being a Beast (1998)." If you don't know how to find the title of a source, read about How to Find Information on Google.
If your professor requires it, you can also include an author search term with your in-text citation. This will return a list of sources that match the author search. You can then choose which source to use from this list.
Do not include page numbers in in-text citations. These appear in the bibliography instead.
An in-text citation is a reference to another part of the text. It is inserted into the main body of the essay near where it is needed. In-text citations are necessary when referencing parts of the text that are not included in the bibliography.