List all writers, up to a maximum of 19 names. Include the first 19, then an ellipsis—followed by the last author's name—if there are 21 or more writers. Note that if you have fewer than 20 authors for the work, their names can be listed individually.
If there are three or more writers, list just the first, followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for "and others") in lieu of the names of the succeeding authors.
If a source includes three or more authors, the name of the first author should be mentioned in the citation, followed by the phrase "et al." Citations for example: It was stressed that text citations should be consistent (Jones et al., 2011). They should also include the page number at which the work can be found, either within the body of the paper or in an appendix. Works cited on p. 547 should be cited as follows: It may be noted that works cited are usually only those that have been particularly important in leading up to the present time.
Citations are often confused with references. A citation is used to acknowledge the origin of information while a reference is used to refer to specific material within the source. For example, a researcher might cite several articles in the literature when discussing a topic, but would then need to provide full bibliographic details for each one.
The word "citation" comes from the Latin citatio, meaning "a calling out," and refers to any action taken to draw attention to or give recognition to something. The term is commonly used in academia to describe the process of using other people's ideas or findings without acknowledging their authorship. This would include ideas or materials obtained through independent research or self-study and then referencing them without providing appropriate credit.
How to Apply Etc.
In every reference, including the first, use simply the first author's name followed by "et al." unless doing so would cause uncertainty between various sources. Et should not be followed by a period in et al. Only the word "al" should be separated by a period. Authors' last names should not be included in citations.
After mentioning an in-text reference once, all future citations to a work with three or more authors should include the surname of the first author followed by et al. 3.0 Many writers correctly utilize et al. in context but make italicization or punctuation mistakes. Examples include using it when referring to a book with no author, such as "Et al."; or after only two authors, as in "Et al.". Errors involving et al can be difficult to spot because there is no rule regarding its placement. It can appear at the end of a sentence, before the closing quotation mark, after the opening one, or within the quotation itself.
When citing sources with three to five authors, name all of them the first time and use "et al." only after that. Use "et al." from the first citation for sources with six or more authors. For sources with three or more authors, always use "et al." in MLA format. This holds true for both in-text and Works Cited citations.
Here are some examples of appropriate uses of "et al" in MLA style: Young et al. (2009) examined how often "et al." appears in academic articles. Young et al. (2009) found that while less common than other forms of citation, "et al." is still used quite frequently by researchers.
McGuire et al. (2000) reported that "et al." is commonly used by scholars to indicate that they are not responsible for all aspects of a study but that others should be considered as potential contributors including individuals who have been omitted from the author list.
Bakhtin et al. (2008) note that while "et al." is most commonly used as a form of citation, it can also be employed as a way of indicating that you are referring to multiple sources for the same concept/idea/argument/statement/claim. Bakhtin et al. (2008) explain that when using "et al." it is important to provide readers with enough information so that they can identify the relevant sources.
A work written by three or more authors In every reference, including the first, use simply the first author's name followed by "et al." unless doing so would cause uncertainty between various sources. Authors' names are usually printed in alphabetical order, so using this abbreviation ensures that they will be cited in the correct order.
In case of an anonymous work, such as A History of Science, use the phrase "et al." even if it is one book or article. If an anonymous work was published with a title page listing only the first two authors, then put the third author's name in brackets after their names. For example, (Einstein) would indicate that Einstein was the third author on the page.
If you are writing about researchers who have different titles but who are considered equal contributors to a project, such as Drs. Smith and Brown, then list them all together with et al. Even if the other authors did not write any articles themselves, they still need to be credited for their work on the project in question.
Anonymous works, such as books-without-authors or journals without-names, can be referred to with et al. even if they are not written by multiple people. For example, a book called "Science History" could be referenced with this abbreviation.