Italicizes the titles of books, plays, films, magazines, databases, and websites. If the source is part of a larger work, put the title in quotation marks. Articles, articles, chapters, poems, websites, songs, and speeches are all surrounded by quote marks. Titles can sometimes contain additional titles. For example, for a book called "My Book Title", write "my book title". For a movie called "The Wizard of Oz", write "the wizard of oz".
If the source is a person's name, find out what form it takes and italicize it: Mary Shelley wrote "Frankenstein"; Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin"; Maya Angelou wrote "I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings". If the source is not a person but a place, italicize it: London is famous for its shopping; Paris has been called the city of lights. If the source is something else, leave it normal type: The computer is good for business; New York City is known for its skyscrapers.
Journal names come in two forms: English or Latin, with English being the more common one. If the journal is named after a person, use their first name: Edward Elgar wrote some music; Virgil Hill compiled this list. If the journal is not named after a person, use its abbreviation: R. J. Q., Vol. 123 is an academic journal.
Italicize book, scholarly journal, periodical, film, video, television show, and microfilm publishing names in APA. Articles, webpages, songs, episodes, and so forth do not require quotation marks or italics. However, books and journals published by universities or other organizations usually have the publisher's name in italics.
Books, magazines, and journals are often referred to by their title and volume number. For example, "The Chicago Manual of Style" is a reference work that editors use to ensure that their articles are written correctly. It is most often called simply "The Chicago Manual." The name and abbreviation can be used as direct citations: "According to the Chicago Manual..." Or, if the editor wants to refer to a specific page, he or she may cite it directly: "On page 123 of his book, Smith mentions Jones."
Most books and journals are published with the author's name printed in italics. This is true even if the author is also the editor or publisher. Thus, an article written by John Smith would include the word "John" in italics. A webpage created by John Smith would have his name in standard typeface.
Scholarly journals are publications which serve the purpose of communicating information and research results between scientists. They are usually short (one to four pages long), independent works that have no general audience.
Double-quote the title of an article or chapter, and italicize the title of a magazine, book, brochure, or report. These are examples of how to format the title of an article: "The Uses and Abuses of History," "History is History by Other Names," "What Is History?" "Historical Fiction." These are examples of how to format the title of a book: "History Now: What It Is and Why It Matters," "Understanding History: A User's Guide," "The Historian's Craft: Selected Essays of E. H. Carr," "What Is History?" "A Short History of Nearly Everything." These are examples of how to format the title of a report: "Historical Data Collection and Analysis Techniques," "Using Archival Materials in Your Research Paper," "How to Write a Book Report."
For more information on academic publishing, see our journal publication page.
In other words, a title that is italicized in the body of a document will likewise be italicized on the reference page. A title that would be italicized and quoted in the body of the document (such as the title of an article in a journal) will be written without italics and quotation marks on the references page.
A basic rule of thumb is to italicize the titles of full works inside the body of a paper, but to use quotation marks around the titles of portions within a complete work. For example, if there is a chapter titled "I Love Lucy" then you would normally not italicize the word "Lucy", but rather, you would simply type it in regular text and set it off with quotation marks.
There are several ways to indicate the title of a work. The simplest is to put its name in caps at the beginning of the sentence. However, for books written by more than one author or editor, this is not always possible. In that case, you can use abbreviations, such as "the", "a", "an". Or you can use full names, such as "John F. Kennedy".
The title of a work may also be indicated by subject headings used by the editor to organize the material on a page. These subject headings may appear in boldface type or an alternative color. You should not rely on these subject headings to identify all of the parts of a book or article. Rather, read each page to determine whether it refers to part of the work with which you are unfamiliar.
Finally, the title of a work can be identified at the end of the paper.
Magazine names should be italicized in general. Italicize foreign words and phrases unless they are so commonly used and understood that they have become a part of the English language. For example, FIFA is usually not italicized.
Use quotation marks to indicate words or phrases that are being printed in small type. For example, "The Wall Street Journal." Do not use quotation marks when the word or phrase that follows is meant to be read aloud. For example, do not say "John Doe's murder trial." Instead, say "the case."
Do not use periods at the end of sentences except after quotations.