Graphs, diagrams, and charts can assist your reader understand **your study findings** and how they compare to other data. Tables are handy when you need to convey **a large amount** of numerical data in an understandable way while also showing accurate values. Graphs, like tables, can be used to show data relationships that would be difficult or impossible to describe in words alone.

A graph is useful for illustrating concepts, arguments, and ideas. They can also help readers understand complex information or surveys with many questions. Using graphs effectively is an important tool for making scientific papers more readable and accessible to others. The three main types of graphs are bar graphs, line graphs, and scatterplots.

Bar graphs show a single variable by grouping data into periods. These periods can be years, months, weeks, days, or even higher numbers for extremely small samples. Each period is called a "bar". Bar graphs are useful for comparing several groups on a single scale, such as average grades in school over time. They work best when there are enough sample sizes in **each group** to be meaningful. When reading a paper that uses this type of graph, keep in mind that the data points are spread out over multiple years/months/weeks/days, so look at all the bars together before making judgments about which ones are increasing or decreasing in length.

A chart's primary roles are to present facts and to encourage deeper investigation of a topic. When a basic table cannot sufficiently depict crucial relationships or patterns between data points, a chart is utilized. For example, a bar chart would be inappropriate for comparing sales figures across **multiple regions** because different units (counts) of measurement are used. However, a bar chart would be suitable for showing that one region had higher sales than another. A pie chart would not be useful for illustrating sales figures because it does not reveal the proportion of each item sold. It can only show total sales.

Charts are useful tools for displaying information. They allow viewers to comprehend large amounts of data in a simple way. Additionally, charts can help readers identify trends or patterns in data that may not be apparent from merely reading the text. For example, if it were known that companies with **more female executives** tended to perform better than those with **less women** on top, looking at the stock prices of various companies would not provide this information. But by using a chart, this relationship becomes evident very quickly.

One important use of charts is to illustrate concepts in an easy-to-understand format. For example, when teaching students about energy production through photosynthesis, there is no need to go into great detail about the subject matter.

Words aren't always the most efficient method to convey. Pie charts depict the percentage of the total that is occupied by **various portions**. They are often used to show the distribution of opinions or behaviors within a group. Donut charts display information in **a similar way** to a pie chart but instead of showing percentages, they indicate the number of people belonging to each category.

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Making them distinct hues can assist the reader in distinguishing between each outcome. This type of graph is useful for showing the distribution of responses to a survey question or rating many products based on their features.

Venn diagrams are useful for visualizing **multiple relationships** at once. It allows you to see all aspects of a single topic or phenomenon at once, which can help readers understand what elements are shared and unique about these topics/events.

Bar charts show the relative size of two or more groups. They can be used to compare the frequency of different events in **your dataset** or the effectiveness of different interventions.

Line graphs display changes over time for an individual or group. They are useful for showing trends in data over a period of time. They can also be used to illustrate experiences of individuals within a group.

Scatter plots are useful for showing the relationship between **two variables**. They provide information about the direction and strength of **this relationship**. For example, if one variable is associated with age, then a scatter plot can reveal how much people score on a test. A strong correlation would be shown by similar results being obtained for people of all ages while low scores could be obtained for **some young people** and very old people.

Bar graphs show the relationship between **two variables** by plotting one variable on the horizontal axis and the other on the vertical axis. Line graphs display information about events over time. Scatter plots show the relationship between two variables from the same group of people.

The visual aspect of research articles is important for several reasons. First, it helps readers understand the study findings. Second, it encourages them to read further into the article to learn more about the study subjects. Third, it makes it easier for researchers to communicate study results with other scientists who may not be familiar with **statistical analysis tools** such as p-values and t-tests.

Statistical charts are easy to interpret because they use simple shapes to show relationships between variables. For example, in **this research article**, the author used a pie chart to show the proportion of boys and girls in each country's population. This helps the reader understand how many boys and girls there were in **each country** at the time of the study.

Bar graphs are another popular type of statistical chart. They show the relationship between two variables by plotting one on the horizontal axis and the other on the vertical axis.