Research notes should be between 3,000 and 4,000 words in length (although up to 5,000 words may be approved under specific situations) and should generally follow the research paper guidelines, such as referencing and bibliographic material. They are written independently of the host institution's faculty members or administrators and often include the author's opinions on various topics within their field.
Most institutions require that research notes be submitted and/or published in order for the author to receive credit toward fulfillment of the requirement. However, some universities allow students to meet this requirement by writing longer papers that are then divided into multiple notes. Occasionally, students may be allowed to write only one very long note instead.
Credit can also be obtained through other means, such as presenting a lecture series on a topic within the field or serving as editor or co-editor of a journal article. In these cases, it is up to the student to secure his or her own appropriate institutional approval for the project.
It is important to remember that although meeting the requirements for graduation from a given program may lead to acceptance into a subsequent program, the reverse is not always true. For example, if a student receives a low score on the graduate school admission test (GRE), it does not necessarily mean that they will not be accepted into any graduate programs. It simply means that they will most likely have to take the test again next year.
A research proposal is typically roughly 2,500 words long, with no higher or lower restriction. Some researchers may prefer more or less than this, but that's typical.
There are two main types of research proposals: abstracts and full papers. An abstract is usually about 150 words long and is intended to catch the attention of the reader. It can be presented at a conference or published in a journal. A full paper is generally between 6,000 and 8,000 words long and is intended for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
The length of the proposal reflects the level of detail required by the assignment or project you are working on. There is no set number of sentences or paragraphs as such; instead, try to cover all relevant topics without going into unnecessary detail.
It is important that you write clearly and simply for others to understand your ideas and conclusions. Avoid using complex language or scientific jargon when writing proposals because these things will not help them read or understand your work better. Journalists often have to edit articles down to a certain word count, so keep this in mind when writing.
Most scholarly journal articles are between 7,000 and 8,000 words long, and most scholarly print volumes are between 70,000 and 110,000 words long, with limited room for variation. This means that you can write an article that will fit in a journal or volume, or you can write a book that will not feel brief or superficial.
All else being equal, the more ambitious your project, the longer it should be. A book-length work of history would be reasonable to write over 100,000 words. An article in a major journal could be as short as 7,000 words. A book review or essay about recent events could be as short as 20,000 words.
When you write an article, you have some freedom over how long it should be. You can make it as long or short as you like. But if you write a book, there is no getting away from it: the length of your book determines the length of your text. Short books tend to be written by authors who want to say something significant about their subject quickly and directly. Long books usually involve more discussion and analysis than one topic can bear.
The ideal word count for a book is generally between 80,000 and 120,000 words, depending on how long the chapter titles are expected to be.
The number of sources needed for research articles varies with document length: 8-page papers should include at least 8 sources; 10-page papers should have at least 10 sources; and so on. All references on the REFERENCES page must be referenced in the text. If you cite a book in your text but not on the reference page, then readers will not be able to find it.
When writing your own work, always provide sufficient background information to help readers understand what's going on. This means including more than just a list of equations or facts about animals in captivity. Explain why these items are relevant to the topic at hand. Also consider using visual aids (charts, graphs, maps) to help readers understand complex ideas or material that might not be easily conveyed through only words.
Finally, proofread your work before submitting it! Missing or incorrect citations, sloppy language, and other errors can seriously damage your reputation as an author - even if they're not immediately apparent when reading through a manuscript first time.