Et al. in General Articles with one or two authors contain all authors' names in every in-text citation; articles with three, four, or five authors include all authors' names in the first in-text citation but are truncated to the first author's name plus et al. in subsequent citations.
Et al. is used when there are several authors and they all need to be acknowledged. This means that their contributions will be recognized even if some of them are very small. For example, an article on the effects of a drug might report findings from studies conducted by different researchers. The study results would be reported together with information about each researcher's role in conducting the study. This would be done using the term "et al."
When citing references, it is necessary to provide the full name of the author or authors. If your reference list contains only first names, then et al. should be used instead.
Et al. is often misused by writers who want to have their work attributed to many people even if they only contributed a little bit. This is not correct usage of this term and it makes readers think that these authors did not trust their work enough to give it a title that describes its content accurately.
To abbreviate in-text citations containing three or more authors, use the acronym "et al." (meaning "and others"). This is how it works: For example, include simply the first author's surname, followed by "et al.", a comma, then the year of publication (Taylor et al., 2018).
You may use "et al." from the first mention if there are at least six writers. In all circumstances, use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in your in-text citation.
1. When mentioning a book with three, four, or five authors, writers may use the surname of the first author followed by et al. Only when there are six or more authors in a book should the initial in-text citation include the first author followed by et al. This is because the et al. abbreviation is used to indicate that which follows is as good as, if not better than, what was cited earlier.
2. An et al. list is used at the beginning of a chapter or section to indicate those things that follow are as good as, or better than, what was cited previously. For example, if discussing methods for measuring income inequality, one might cite DeNavas-Walt and Preston (2011) and then include an et al. list including other studies that have examined this question.
3. Et al. is used in footnotes and bibliographies to indicate that which follows is as good as, or better than, what was cited earlier. For example, if citing two studies on the subject of poverty rates in different countries, one could write "See also Hoppe (2002) and Sacks (2000)."
4. Et cetera indicates that which follows is similar to but not exactly the same as what was cited earlier.
The number of authors included in in-text citations In every citation for a work by one or two authors, provide the author(s) name(s). If a book has three or more authors, add just the first author's name plus "et al." in all citations, including the first, unless doing so would cause ambiguity. For example, if a book had authors A, B, and C, then citations for articles written by only one author would be given as A.kolodny, M. (1999). How to cite a book with multiple authors.
For books with three or more authors, provide the first author's last name followed by et al. This is the standard form of citation for works other than single articles. For example, if a book had authors A, B, and C, then citations for articles written by only one author would be given as Kolodny A.kolodny M. How to cite a book with multiple authors.
Books that have more than three authors should always be cited with an alphabetical list of authors and their surnames, separated by commas. Thus, an article citing this book would be referred to as Kolodny et al. (2009), because there are four authors in total. However to avoid confusion in cases where not all authors have been cited, it is acceptable to omit the last name for authors who have previously been cited.
If a source includes three or more authors, the name of the first author should be mentioned in the citation, followed by the phrase "et al." Citations for example: It was stressed that text citations should be consistent (Jones et al., 2011). They reported that paper citations should be referenced using the full author list (Smith and Tinker, 2010).
If the source is a book, the author names are usually placed at the end of the citation. For example, Smith, Jones, and Robinson would be cited as Smith et al., 2011. If the source is an article, the author names are usually placed after the year published, with the exception of articles that have multiple authors, such as collaborative works like books or journal articles. For example, Jones et al., 2001, would be cited as Jones et al.
In general, it is acceptable to use abbreviations for authors' names if they are commonly used abbreviations such as Dr. , Prof. , or Hon. However, if the source contains many authors with varying degrees of authority, it may be appropriate to use full names instead (e.g., Albus, Pumnus, and Flos).
For editors, publishers, and others who do not hold a degree, the title and first word of the work are used as the prefix for the citation.
When citing sources with three to five authors, name all of them the first time and use "et al." only after that. Use "et al." from the first citation for sources with six or more authors. These sources are also called "multiauthor" sources.
If the authors' names appear in the text, use their last names in the citation. When citing a text with more than three authors, you only use "et al." When quoting in the text, put the citation before the last quote mark. — All sources that have been cited, paraphrased, or summarized are included. These include books, magazines, newspapers, websites, and other collections of articles.
It is acceptable to use the first name plus last name for authors who use single names, such as Jane Smith. However, if possible, use their full names: John Doe and Jane Smith. This is especially important when the source is very famous or when they give many interviews or appearances on TV or in movies. Using their full name makes it easier for others to find them later.
For editors who edited multiple volumes of a series, list each volume with its own date. For example, if you edited four volumes in the series, list them as such: Vol. 1 January 1-December 31, 2013; Vol. 2 January 1-December 31, 2014; Vol. 3 January 1-December 31, 2015; and Vol. 4 January 1-December 31, 2016.
Bibliographies can be found at the end of most books or articles. They provide information about other books or articles that were used as sources. They can also include your own notes about the book or article you're reading.