Draw Your Own Conclusions In what ways does the use of vernacular by Northern European writers reflect humanist principles? Erasmus introduced humanism to a larger audience. He advocated for the translation of the Christian Bible into the vernacular. He stated that it was an individual's responsibility to be open-minded and to exhibit goodwill toward others. He believed that education should be available to all people, not just those who could afford to pay for tuition.
Humanism is the belief that humanity has the ability to understand and control nature and its forces through science and reason alone without the help of any gods. It began in Europe around 1350 and lasted until about 1750. The leading figures were philosopher John Locke, scientist Isaac Newton, and artist Michelangelo.
Locke is considered the father of modern liberalism. He developed an ideology called "liberalism" which means "freedom and liberty." Liberalism seeks freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom from oppression, and so on.
Newton invented calculus, conducted many experiments regarding gravity, and published his findings in A Treatise on Universal Algebra. He also designed the system of mathematics we use today called "integral notation."
Michelangelo was one of the most influential artists of all time. His work can be seen in churches all over Europe. He was a devout Catholic and used his artistic talents to express his beliefs about hell and heaven.
"Before the Renaissance, literature typically gave ideal models for living that were governed by the church's ethos, but after the Reformation, the desire for individual expression and meaning took precedence." Institutions were questioned and re-evaluated, frequently while being lauded. For example, the Bible was believed to be full of errors and therefore had no authority over life. Thus, freedom of thought and religion were achieved.
Literature during this time consisted of monastic chronicles, which were written by monks who recounted important events that had taken place in their order or community. There were also biographies of famous people done by other monks. These works would later influence novelists and poets during the Renaissance. Literature before the Renaissance was also marked by collections of poems called canzones that were often sent as gifts between lovers. These poems expressed their feelings without using specific names for each other, which allowed for more freedom than writing under the rule of a religious order.
After the Renaissance, many changes took place in literature. The Church began to allow for greater freedom of thought, so authors could question current beliefs and ideas more readily. At the same time, new technologies such as printing houses and books could now be made available to a larger audience. This led to a rise in readership among the public at large. Novels and stories about real people being lived and loved by others became popular.
Northern humanists were frequently referred to as Christian humanists. The Christian humanists, like their Italian counterparts, meticulously researched classical sources. However, they also strove to imbue humanism with a distinctively Christian flavor. They did so by adopting many of the tools and techniques of biblical criticism, such as textual analysis, grammatical reconstruction, and historical writing. These efforts produced works that are important contributions to the development of modern science, philosophy, and theology.
In addition to being called Christian humanists, northern humanists were also often referred to as Catholic humanists. This is because many of them were educated in European universities where the Catholic Church was both the main patron and source of knowledge. In fact, some northern humanists were ordained as priests or monks to carry on the work they had begun. Despite these connections with the Catholic Church, few Northern humanists were Roman Catholics; rather, they were mostly Protestants.
Finally, northern humanists were also often called orthodox humanists. Orthodox here does not mean religious but rather referring to the belief that humans have the ability to know truth through their own senses and reason - thus the label "orthodox humanist". This view was shared by many intellectuals in Europe at the time. It was an accepted part of culture that people should seek knowledge through rational thinking.