Working articles are not peer-reviewed. Papers in this series may be at varying stages of completion; hence, the "Version number" appears on the front of each paper. Individual authors are responsible for the form and content of their publications. Other than the cover sheet, the format is not specified. The papers in this series are published under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Working Papers are drafts of academic papers, book chapters, or reviews. Papers placed on this site are in the works, have been submitted, or are in the press and will be published elsewhere. They may not include all the necessary citations or evidence to support their conclusions.
Working Papers are scientific papers that are still in progress and are not yet published in journals or books. These papers are often written by scientists who are part of research teams that develop new ideas about topics within their fields. The writers may use their personal insights to help them explain their findings. Some working papers are also called notes, proposals, or reports. They can be written by students or scholars as a way to share their ideas without publishing them fully developed.
Working papers are usually presented at conferences or published in academic journals. Although they do not yet meet full peer review standards, many important decisions have already been made regarding content and style, so they can provide a preview of what's to come. Writers sometimes update existing works to include new data or theories, or they may start completely new projects that lead to publications later on.
Researchers often publish their work early in order to get feedback from other experts, but also because it allows them to better understand their fields of interest.
Working papers can be in various stages of completion. Some working papers' findings are so preliminary that their authors will advise against citing their work. Even so, working papers are a great way for journalists to gain access to new research quickly. Journalists should note that working papers do not usually appear in peer-reviewed journals.
Working papers are published by universities and other institutions to inform scholars and practitioners about their current projects and activities. Thus, they often contain details about studies or conferences that have not been published elsewhere. Working papers are different from reports which are generally prepared for an audience outside academia (for example, reports to government agencies or private companies). Reports are generally longer than working papers and use a more formal language. However, some reports may include references to unpublished material (for example, data sets) or present results from ongoing studies.
Unpublished materials may include raw data collected as part of larger studies or project proposals that did not lead to publications. For example, researchers may submit study protocols to ethics committees for review before starting data collection activities. Such documents may then be made available as working papers when the studies are completed. Or, faculty members may submit drafts of articles they plan to write as proposals to obtain funding for their research programs. These documents are then cited as working papers when the articles are published later on.
A working paper, also known as a work paper, is a preliminary scientific or technical article. Working papers are frequently released by authors to discuss ideas about a topic or to get input before submitting them to a peer-reviewed conference or academic publication. This type of publication is useful for discussing and refining ideas prior to writing up the results in a research report.
Working papers are usually presented at conferences or published in specialized journals. They are often considered to be important contributions to their fields because they can include detailed analyses of data or new approaches that other researchers can build on. Because they are not reviewed by any editor, there is no guarantee that they will eventually become articles. However, many conferences have a policy of publishing working papers so they can reach a wider audience.
Working papers are different from thesis or dissertation proposals in that they are written specifically to share your ideas with others rather than being submitted for approval. Also, working papers do not typically attempt to prove or disprove any existing theories or hypotheses; instead, they often present new ways of looking at problems that may lead to future studies. Finally, working papers are not considered to be official publications of the institutions that produced them; they are written to facilitate discussion and collaboration between researchers.
Working papers are commonly produced during the research process as a way to disseminate findings before they are published in more prestigious journals or at conferences.
Working papers from the NBER are distributed for debate and critique. They have not been peer-reviewed or approved by the NBER Board of Directors, as is customary for official NBER publications. However, many NBER researchers and staff members read and comment on them before they are released to the public.
Workers' papers are generally informed by data that are a few years old, but sometimes include new analyses based on more recent data. Because they are intended to be read and discussed within the economics community, they are written in a style that should be accessible to a broad audience of scholars.
Most NBER research papers are published in academic journals, but some are also presented at professional meetings and published in book form. The quality of these papers is usually high; however, some work in progress documents may contain errors that later need revision. Also, some studies are so novel that there are no existing benchmarks against which to judge their merit. In such cases, NBER makes efforts to contact authors when relevant data become available so that they can be included in future publications.
As noted, most NBER working papers are circulated within the economics community and often lead to further research. Some papers also make an impact outside of academia and lead to policy changes.