Citations should be separated from parenthetical content using semicolons (for parenthetical citations) or commas around the year (for narrative citations). Use of a double enclosure or back-to-back parentheses is not permitted.
If the phrase is spelt out for the first time in parenthesis, put the abbreviation in brackets after it, followed by a semicolon and the author-date citation. For example, (cp.) for copyright, (eb.) for editorial board, and (sy.) for supervisor.
Put a period after the final word of the phrase, followed by the parenthesis, at the conclusion of the quote. Further explanation and examples may be found on pages 174–179 of the APA Manual, 6th edition. Examples of In-Text and Parenthetical Citation Citation Styles: In-Text and Parenthetical The in-text citation is used when citing information found in the body of the text. This method involves using footnotes or endnotes to identify sources. An example would be to cite the source of a statistic found in the article. The parenthetical citation is used when referencing material outside the body of the text, such as books, articles, and websites. This method involves inserting the reference into the text itself. For example, if the statistic cited is found in an appendix, the parenthetical citation would be placed within the body of the paper immediately following the sentence including the statistic (or in a separate section if there is not enough space). Note that only one form of citation is required for in-text citations, but more than one may be used for parenthetical citations.
When parenthetical text appears in the middle of a bigger phrase, the surrounding punctuation should be placed outside the parentheses, just as if the parenthetical content did not exist. For example: He said "Hello" when he saw me.
Punctuation, Single, and Double For a citation within a citation, double quotation marks are used first and single quotation marks are used second in American English. Unless it is part of the quoted text, all punctuation in British English is put outside the quotation marks.
In academic writing, including articles, essays, and reports, using proper grammar and language is important for clarity and readability. Using quotation marks is one way to indicate a word or phrase that you want to quote. Without using quotation marks, this would be unclear to others reading your work.
Academic journals often require a list of sources at the end of articles, reports, and other scholarly works. These lists of sources are known as bibliographies. In order to create a bibliography, you will need to identify each source cited in the work. You do this by inserting an annotation into the text near where the reference appears. This annotation should include the following information: the name of the author, the title of the work being referenced, and the date of publication if available. Then, at the end of the article, report, or other work, you should include a list of references with their corresponding annotations. This allows readers to find out more information about each source mentioned in the work.
Academic writers sometimes use quotation marks when referring to parts of books, such as chapters or sections.
** Take note that the sentence's punctuation comes after the parentheses. For further information, please consult the following guidebook, which is available on reserve at the library: The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.
Parentheses should never be used in the same sentence. If appropriate, several types of content may be included in a single pair of parenthesis, normally separated by a semicolon....
If a quotation is followed by a citation in parentheses, the citation is followed by a period. If you use a superscript footnote number, it comes after the period and quote marks. Otherwise, it follows the parenthetical citation.