Is reverse translation possible?

Is reverse translation possible?

There is reverse translation. A quick Google search will turn up a number of webservers that can accept an amino acid sequence and generate a corresponding nucleotide sequence. A few tricks are involved. When a nucleic acid sequence is translated into a protein, a degeneracy occurs. That is, more than one codon can be decoded as any given amino acid. Thus, to obtain a completely accurate prediction you would need to know which of the many possible translations is correct. Many genes contain introns, which are segments of DNA that are not translated into proteins. Such DNA sequences must somehow be removed during processing, but their absence from the coding region means that they cannot affect protein structure or function.

Reverse translation uses this fact to predict intron positions in genes. Rather than starting with the protein sequence and working back toward the gene sequence, it starts with the gene sequence and works forward toward the protein sequence. The first step is to identify all in-frame stop codons present in the sequence. These are codons that can end a protein chain and so cannot represent actual introns. They must instead be noncoding regions of the DNA. After removing all stop codons, the next task is to find out which of the remaining codons code for particular amino acids.

What are the results of translation?

The amino acid sequence produced by translation is known as a polypeptide. Polypeptides can then be folded into functional proteins. Translation also produces non-protein molecules called metabolites. These include small molecules such as sugars, acids, and hormones.

Translation results in multiple copies of the original mRNA molecule being made. Each copy contains the same information as the original mRNA molecule but has a unique sequence. This is known as "codon redundancy" and allows for more than one protein to be made from each mRNA. Codons are the basic building blocks of DNA sequences that specify amino acids in proteins. There are 61 codons in total; they are divided between three groups based on their use in coding for amino acids: initiation codons (AUG), stop codons (UAA, UGA or UAG), and alternative start codons (GUG, GGC, GGA). Alternative start codons are used instead of the usual AUG if an upstream in-frame AUG is present. They allow translation to begin at a different site than the usual AUG, thus producing a shorter transcript but one which still leads to the synthesis of the same protein.

Translation involves several complex steps carried out by various ribosomes within the cell. It begins with the transcription of genetic information into RNA.

How does translation happen?

Translation is the process of creating a protein from the information contained in a messenger RNA molecule (mRNA). Translation takes place in a structure known as the ribosome, which serves as a protein production factory. During translation, an mRNA sequence is read by the ribosome, which uses the information encoded in the sequence to make a complementary copy of the mRNA. This new copy is called a transcript. The transcript then becomes a template for making proteins.

Translation can be thought of as "reading" the genetic code contained in an mRNA and using this information to make a copy of the mRNA. The transcript then makes the proteins encoded by its corresponding DNA sequence.

Transcription starts with the binding of transcription factors to specific sequences on DNA. These sites are called promoters. The transcription factors then attract more proteins that are required for transcription. These proteins include enzymes that create chemical tags on genes that control when and where they are expressed. These tags include methyl groups added by enzymes such as EZH2 that turn off gene expression, acetyl groups added by enzymes such as CREB that turn on gene expression.

Once these sites are tagged with enzymes and other proteins, the DNA itself is unwound so that it can be copied. This process is called elongation and requires the help of a polymerase enzyme.

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Jessica Sickles

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