Contrary to popular belief, there is no formal surrender paperwork. The surrender was accomplished by the exchange of two brief letters. Grant's response was only five phrases long, while Lee's response was three extremely short, terse sentences.
The letters were as follows: "I will accept your terms if it is consistent with the honor of this army and I hope the same spirit that has so long animated it will continue to do so until peace is declared." This was written by General Lee to General Grant on April 10th, 1865. In return, Grant wrote: "I will receive you on my terms at any time or place where we can reach an agreement." This letter was written to General Lee on April 12th, 1865.
These letters are the only documents that formally ended the Civil War.
However, both men acted like they were ending something more than a war. Grant wanted to prevent further bloodshed, while Lee desired only to stop the fighting and leave the country in a state of peace.
After receiving these letters, members of Lee's staff began to discuss terms for surrendering. These discussions resulted in two proposals; one that included all the Confederate armies, and another that included just Lee's corps.
In this final official presentation to the Army of Northern Virginia, Lee accepted responsibility for the choice to surrender in order to save his men's lives, whom he then lauded for their "constancy and commitment" to the Confederacy. Lee blames the Confederacy's failure on being "forced to succumb to... overwhelming numbers" of Union troops.
After discussing terms with General Grant, who was viewing the battlefield from a nearby house, Lee returned to his tent to find that "General Longstreet had also arrived." Grant had proposed that the soldiers be allowed to return home with their arms, which would be given back to them when they arrived in Richmond, but Lee refused, pointing out that this would offer no guarantee that they would not be attacked again if he were found guilty of treason. Instead, Lee agreed to surrender his army.
Grant writes: "I will now ask General Lee some questions. If he refuses to answer, it will be taken as an admission that he is guilty; but I am willing to assume any risk in order to end the war. Get a written answer to these questions, if you can."
Lee replies through a staff officer: "As the conditions under which my troops are called upon to serve have been changed since the beginning of the war, I cannot accept them within the limits of military duty. I must decline your proposition that I should give up my command."
Articles of Agreement Concerning the Army of Northern Virginia's Surrender.
The articles were signed by Confederate President Jefferson Davis from his office in Richmond on April 10, 1865. They included the following provisions:
1. The officers and men surrendered by General Lee will be granted immediate and unconditional parole.
2. All arms and equipment (except those taken by the United States Government) will be paid for by the Confederacy or its representatives.
3. All horses and mules will be paid for by the Confederacy or its representatives.
4. Personal property of all kinds, except slaves, is to be allowed to remain where it is until a claim can be made for it or its value determined by a committee appointed by President Davis.
5. The wives, children, and servants of the soldiers who fought for the Confederacy but were not able-bodied enough to serve themselves are to be provided for by the government that releases them.
6. It is desired that the troops conduct themselves with humanity toward their prisoners.
A surrender clause is a common feature of a business lease that relates to renters' obligation to return leased premises to the same condition in which they were leased. The intricacy and criteria of surrender provisions in business leases might vary greatly. For example, if a tenant remains in possession of the property after the end of the lease term, the lease will usually be deemed terminated as to that tenant.
Surrender clauses are typically found in commercial leases and often require some form of payment by the tenant to retain rights under the lease. For example, the tenant may be required to pay a fee or deposit to remain eligible to exercise options granted by the lease or to become a new lessee under a holdover provision. In other cases, the tenant can remain in possession without paying another rent charge by giving timely notice of intention to quit and then moving out before the end of the lease term. Either way, the goal is the same: give the landlord enough money or security so that he or she will agree not to seek future payments from you.
The amount of the surrender fee will depend on how long the tenant has been in possession and at what rent level the tenant was paying when given the opportunity to surrender.
A surrender deed is a legal instrument that transfers property title for a certain length of time if specific requirements are satisfied. Any remaining claims on the property can be settled after the surrender document is completed. Surrendering property title is different from selling property because you do not receive any cash or check for your property; instead, you are giving up your rights to the property.
Surrendering property title may be necessary in order for someone else to obtain financing for the purchase of the property. If you have good credit, it is not required. You will be given an expiration date beyond which no further payments must be made in order for you to retain your right to reclaim possession of the property. At least 30 days prior to the end of the lease period, you should notify the seller in writing of your intent to renew the lease or not. If this notice is not given, then you will be considered to have surrendered ownership of the property.
The form of the surrender document depends on how long you want to give up ownership of the property and what rights you would like to keep. It can be as simple as a written declaration, signed by you and the seller of the property, stating that you are voluntarily giving up your right to occupy the property. Or, you can execute a formal release deed.
Robert E. Lee surrenders his 28,000 Confederate forces to Union General Ulysses S. Grant in Appomattox Court House, Virginia, officially ending the American Civil War. Desertions were increasing on a regular basis, and on April 8, the Confederates were besieged and had no way out. General Lee decided that he could not continue to hold out any longer and ordered an evacuation of Petersburg on that date. He knew that if he didn't give up now, he would be killed or captured.
The next day, General Grant meets with President Lincoln at City Hall in Richmond to discuss the terms of the surrender. The main point of contention was whether or not General Lee should be given full military honors during his withdrawal from Petersburg. Lincoln agreed that this would be proper, and on April 9, 1865, General Lee signs a document acknowledging defeat and surrendering his army.
This is probably the most famous image in all of history education. It was taken by Alexander Gardner in 1865 when General Robert E. Lee surrendered his entire army to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia. The war was over, and slavery had been abolished forever. This event has always been seen as the end of one era and the beginning of another.
In conclusion, it can be said that the end of the American Civil War was brought about by political leaders who wanted to preserve the union.