Endnotes and footnotes are double spaced, and the first line is indented from the left margin only. These entries should likewise be double spaced, with the first line flush with the left margin and the second and all consecutive lines indented in a "hanging indent" way. The term "hanging indent" refers to the way that the first line of each new paragraph is indented from the left margin, while all other lines in that paragraph are left unindented.
Notes should be accessible via page numbers. If you want to reference back to an entry in your note, simply use the page number: thus "the entry on Page 3 of the note references back to entry ID 123".
Footnotes are used to identify passages in the text by numbering each successive sentence or phrase that begins with the letter "footnote". Footnotes are usually referenced using superscript Arabic numerals (1a, 2b, 3c). However, this isn't necessary - you can also refer to them by their location in the document: note 29 on page 7, for example. They should be inserted at the bottom of an article near where it ends (or at the end of a chapter if there's no article attached to it).
Footnotes are useful for referencing different parts of the text for comparison or evidence. For example, you might have one footnote that includes quotes from two sources, with both sources identified.
Formatting Guidelines Endnotes are formatted exactly the same as footnotes but appear at the end of your paper as one long list. Footnotes and endnotes are double spaced, and the first line only is indented from the left margin. All other lines are left unindented.
Guidelines for Formatting Endnotes are styled identically like footnotes, except they appear at the conclusion of your document as one lengthy list.
In addition to footnotes and endnotes, your work will include a bibliography, which is a list of all the sources you referenced in your paper, sorted alphabetically by the last name of each author. The bibliography should be included at the end of your paper, preceded by the word "Bibliography" with the page number cited after it.
The bibliography can be done in-text or off-page. For an in-text bibliography, simply type the names of the books you're referencing into the text itself. Off-page citations are listed at the end of your paper, followed by the word "Bibliography" with a page reference. These can be generated using any of a number of citation tools, such as BiblioTech's Canvas Library Manager. Simply type in the titles of the books you're referencing, select how long you want the reference to appear, and click Create Bibliography.
Off-page citations are useful if you have many references or if they fall on different pages. In this case, you'll need to create a separate bibliography for each set of references. Then, when you're finished writing your paper, go through the list of off-page citations and add them to the appropriate bibliographies using the page numbers that follow them.
Footnotes are located at the bottom (or foot) of the page. They start two double spaces underneath the text. Footnotes are single-spaced, although they must be double-spaced. If a note continues on the following page, draw a solid line two spaces below the text and continue the note two spaces below the line. Use this method even if the note is only one sentence long!
In general, use two spaces above and below your notes. This makes them easier to find by readers.
Here is an example of a footnote: “Here is an example of a footnote: John Doe refers to John Smith. See page 3 for more information.”
It is helpful if you include in your footnote reference to another part of the document or page number.
MLA guidelines recommend that reference lists be included at the end of papers. However, some scholars include their references in the body of their papers as well. Either way is acceptable when writing up research projects.
References should be listed in order of appearance, with the most recent article or book first. An asterisk can be used to indicate a reference that cannot be viewed online. Provide as much detail as possible about where to find the reference. For example, if it is an unpublished work, provide a working link to it.