Each time you refer to a source in your work, you must include a distinct footnote. For your notes, you can utilize the default text size. Using the same font and font size as your content is the ideal way (12 point font Times New Roman). Footnotes, with the exception of the dash, should be inserted at the conclusion of all punctuation. The endnote command will place the current note into a footnote area to the right of the screen.
The end of a sentence or a paragraph; therefore, they are contained within these units.
The first footnote should be placed at the bottom of the page, directly after the last sentence of the text. Each subsequent footnote should be placed below its corresponding citation, so both will not be lost if the page is turned upside down.
The distance between footnotes should be equal to their depth under normal conditions, which is the width of the space they take up when there is no text around them. However, this distance can be increased if you want more space between them.
When writing notes of references, always include the source title, author's name and date. These should be inserted into the margin next to where the note is to be placed.
Footnotes are useful for bringing attention to specific points in texts. They are easy to identify and read, and they do not affect the flow of the narrative.
Footnotes can be placed at the bottom of the page on which they occur, or they can be placed on a separate page following the reference page in sequential sequence. Footnote numbers should be superscripted in the text of your document and should come after any punctuation (except a dash). A space should also be left between the footnote number and its text.
In the example below, a footnote has been inserted into the text of the essay with the word "footnote" followed by the footnote number. The word "footnote" has then been re-inserted into the text directly above the original footnote.
Footnote examples: "According to some estimates, there are about 200 million registered vehicles worldwide, with approximately 17 million added each year. Thus, almost one in five cars on the road is a new car." "New cars emit pollutants into the atmosphere, some of which cause climate change."
Citations using the author-date system will include the title of the work, the date it was published, and the name(s) of the author(s), followed by the parenthetical note indicating the source of the information.
Footnotes should be in 10 pt. Times or the closest similar font available; they should be single spaced; and a footnote separator rule should be used (line). Unless inappropriate spacing results, all footnotes should be left and right-justified (i.e., flush with the right margin). In general, there is no need to separate footnotes from their associated text by other than punctuation.
A note on font selection for notes: While it is acceptable to use small capitals for footnotes, this is not required. Font size should be no smaller than 9 point for clarity of reading. Italic typeface is acceptable for notes; however, only use it if the note is relevant to the main body of the essay or article.
Notes are useful tools for bringing attention to particular parts of texts, especially when referencing back to previous pages or sections within the same work. They can also provide additional information about certain topics within the work. Although we would never want to take the place of the editor or author of the work, using notes as a tool can help us understand the mind of the writer or speaker better.
In conclusion, notes are helpful tools for understanding texts better.
When a footnote must be inserted at the conclusion of a sentence, place it after the period. With the exception of one piece of punctuation—the dash—numbers representing footnotes should always appear after punctuation.
Footnote or endnote numbers in the text should be inserted after punctuation and ideally at the end of a phrase. They are referred to in the text as "footnotes." Footnotes are defined as notes written down for their information and reference. For example, if you were writing about the Titanic, you would probably include some sort of note on her age: "The Titanic was launched in 1912 and sank in April 1915." This is called a footnote because it is written "for reference" later on.
Endnotes are similar to footnotes but usually appear at the end of a paragraph or page. Endnotes are used when referencing an entire section of text rather than just a single sentence. For example, if we were writing about the Titanic again, this time focusing on her passengers, we might use endnotes to refer to all the sources that discuss women and class aboard the ship: "For more information on the Titanic, see here, here, and here."
Footnotes and endnotes should be typed or printed in a small, square font such as Courier New 12 point. Use one footnote per sentence and label them properly using words such as source, method, or case. It is not necessary to label endnotes as such; they can be identified by their location within the text.
Each footnote should be placed at the bottom of the page that contains its numbered in-text reference. Use superscript for note numbers in the text. The first line of each note should be indented by half an inch, much like a paragraph in the main text. Separate footnotes from the main text with a short line (or rule). Footnotes should be centered on the page width.
When quoting a quotation, the number should occur at the conclusion of the quotation rather than after the author's name, which should be first in the text. For example: "John Smith said, 'A goose on land, a gander at sea.' We know this because we can find it in John Donne's poetry.'"
Footnotes are best used to reference material that cannot be included in the text for space reasons or material that only makes sense when read in conjunction with other materials.
In the HTML version of this book, you can use the Ctrl+D shortcut key to create a new paragraph without moving the cursor to the end of the current sentence. This is useful if you want to insert a footnote annotation into a single paragraph but not others within the page.