T.S. Eliot, an editor at Faber & Faber, found Spender in 1933. His early poetry, particularly Poems (1933), was frequently influenced by social protest. Spender joined the Communist Party of Great Britain in 1936. He became famous for writing essays on topics such as "World War II and the West" and "The Idea of England." In addition to his literary career, he worked for the BBC from 1942 to 1952 and served as an ambassador to India and Ghana.
Spender was critical of Soviet communism but did not leave the party. In 1964, he wrote that "one must be true to one's beliefs even if they are not popular ones". He also said that "if I were young now, I should become a revolutionary socialist".
In 1977, Spender published New Horizons. This book called for a new world order and was widely seen as justifying the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The British government banned New Horizons in 1978. In 1983, Spender died at the age of 80 after suffering from cancer.
According to Stuart Jeffries, professor of English literature at Edinburgh University, "Spender's political commitment led him into left-wing journalism and then politics. But it was always very much tied up with his admiration for Soviet communism. Indeed, one could say that Soviet communism provided the inspiration for much of his early poetry."
Karl Marx and his partner, Friedrich Engels, were among the most vocal detractors. In their renowned publication, The Communist Manifesto, Marx and Engels established a new concept of communism and popularized the word in 1848. According to them, communism would replace capitalism as the dominant economic system in industrialized countries.
They argued that under capitalism, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. Communism would eliminate this inequality by replacing private property ownership with a system of common ownership. They also proposed that the working class take control of the means of production so they can achieve economic independence. This would abolish the need for wages and allow workers to share in the wealth being created by the machines they were operating.
Marx and Engels' ideas spread across Europe following the publication of their book, and many people believed that they would be able to implement them once the political situation allowed it. But despite having some influence during their lifetime, they never gained majority support. Today, most scholars agree that Marxism is a revolutionary ideology that calls for overthrowing the existing social order and building a new one from scratch. It includes both Marxist philosophy and various practices such as labor unions and parties based on Marxism-Leninism.
Some historians have argued that Mao Zedong was the first communist because he set up a government based on these concepts.
Was Guthrie a communist, even though he wasn't a member of the Communist Party? He referred to it as "simple old commonism." To the end of his life, he was an anti-capitalist, anti-fascist, and ardent socialist, but he was also too much of an individualist to fit into any party discipline or structure.
He did support unionization, however, including miners' rights. And he opposed racism, sexism, and homophobia. These are good qualities for anyone who wants to be a part of the world's first truly international working class movement.
In conclusion, yes, Woody Guthrie is a communist.
Whittaker Chambers (born Jay Vivian Chambers; April 1, 1901–July 9, 1961) was an American writer-editor who defected from the Soviet underground (1938), worked for Time magazine (1939–1948), and subsequently testified about the Ware group in...
Chambers was a prominent figure in the early years of the Cold War, when he was a staff member at the Committee for the Defense of President Truman. He is best known for his role in exposing former Communist Party USA member John Anthony Walker as a CIA agent.
Chambers was born in Washington, D.C., the only child of Vivian Elizabeth Wood and Jay Vivian Chambers, a wealthy stockbroker. His father was a strong supporter of Senator William M. "Bull" Connor's campaign to segregate schools in Washington, D.C. In 1919, when Whittaker Chambers was eleven years old, his family moved to New York City, where his father built up a large brokerage business.
He initially attended St. Paul's School in New Hampshire and then went on to Harvard University, where he joined the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity. While attending college, he wrote articles for several newspapers including the Boston Evening Transcript. After graduating in 1926 with a degree in English literature, he took a job with the Times Magazine, writing reviews and essays for $75 per week.