Ida Tarbell was an American journalist born in Erie County, Pennsylvania on November 5, 1857. Tarbell, an investigative reporter for McClure's magazine, uncovered the Standard Oil Company's unethical tactics, leading to a U.S. Supreme Court ruling to destroy its monopoly. Her work also inspired many other journalists to conduct their own investigations.
Tarbell began her career at age 21 as an apprentice typesetter at the Pittsburgh Gazette. She later worked as an editorial writer and staff reporter at the Philadelphia Public Ledger. It was while working at the Public Ledger that she published her first article, which appeared under the pseudonym "X." This piece discussed the rise of the oil industry in western Pennsylvania.
In 1882, Tarbell moved to Cleveland where she took a job with the News Publishing Company. There, she met Roy W. Howard, the editor-in-chief of the company's weekly newspaper, the Weekly Dispatch. The two became close friends and, a year later, they married fellow journalists. They had one son together who died in infancy.
In 1890, Tarbell left the Weekly Dispatch to take a position with the new McClure's magazine. The series prompted federal regulators to action against the company, resulting in its breakup into smaller companies.
In 1880, she was the sole woman in her Allegheny College graduating class. She then moved on to other topics, including animal rights and women's suffrage.
Tarbell took notes during her interviews with oil industry leaders, later published as two volumes titled The History of the Standard Oil Company. From these notes, she created a narrative that explained how Standard Oil became so powerful - by taking advantage of its customers. For example, it would sell oil at a low price in states where there were no gas laws, like Pennsylvania. Then, when it moved into states that had stricter regulations, it would cut prices to make up for its previous abuse.
Tarbell also revealed how Standard Oil manipulated the politics and law enforcement agencies of Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana to protect its business interests. Finally, she wrote about the many deaths that resulted from the oil industry's practices, including workers who were killed while drilling holes in roads to test the quality of asphalt.
Tarbell's work prompted Congress to pass the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890. This law served as a guide for all future antitrust cases by requiring companies to be competitive in more than one state or region of the country if they wanted to keep their deals secret.
She also exposed the labor practices of the American steel industry during this time period.
Ida M. Tarbell was born on April 2, 1857 in St. Clairsville, Ohio. She was the first child and only daughter of Matthew Tarbell and Mary (née Hochstetter) Tarbell. Her father was a lawyer and her mother was a homemaker.
She had two siblings: a brother named Mattie who died at age three and a half; and a sister named Mary Jane who lived until she was nine years old.
When Ida was young, her family moved to Erie, Pennsylvania where her father opened his own law practice. They later moved again to Delaware when her father was appointed as a judge by President Andrew Johnson. While living in Delaware, she attended public schools and then went on to study journalism at Columbia University in New York City. After graduating in 1880, she took a job as a reporter at the Wilmington Daily News. Within a few months, she was promoted to city editor. In 1884, she married John R. McLean, a wealthy man who owned a large number of shares in the News.
Ida Tarbell was an American journalist well recognized for her groundbreaking investigative work that resulted in the dissolution of the Standard Oil Company's monopoly. She exposed corruption and abuse within this large corporation, leading to its eventual breakup in 1872.
Tarbell began writing articles on business and financial topics for various newspapers from age 19. Her first major story was published in 1900 when she uncovered and reported on the unethical practices of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company. This set off a series of investigations that led to the breakup of the company in 1872.
After this success, Tarbell continued to write about other corporations that were using underhanded methods to increase their profits. In addition to journalism, she also organized labor unions to help them achieve their goals. Tarbell died at the young age of 37 after falling down a flight of stairs while reporting on corporate wrongdoing. She is now considered one of the most important journalists in American history.
Ida Tarbell wrote several books during her lifetime. One of these was The History of the Standard Oil Company which was published posthumously in 1904. This book was so successful that it was made into a movie in 2000 by Warner Brothers. Both the book and the film were based on events that took place during Tarbell's life.
What impact did Ida Tarbell's writings have? The Standard Oil Company was ordered to be broken up by the Supreme Court. This is because it was found to be an illegal monopoly.
Tarbell used undercover work and original sources to prove that John D. Rockefeller, Jr. had created an empire that exploited workers and consumers. After publishing several articles on this topic, she forced him to sell out his company for $50 million in 1911. This example shows that journalists can have a huge influence on their industry and society as a whole.
In addition, Tarbell's work inspired other journalists to write about their own experiences with monopolies. For example, Walter Lippmann wrote an article for the Washington Post in which he criticized President Theodore Roosevelt for taking action against Standard Oil. He also mentioned Tarbell in his article. This shows that journalists can use previous stories or events as inspiration for future pieces of work.
Furthermore, Tarbell's story has been used in many books and movies. These include: "The Lion of Wall Street" (2013), "Da Vinci Code" (2006), and "American History X" (1998). All of these examples show that her work continues to be relevant today.
When Ida Tarbell produced a series of magazine pieces exposing John D. Rockefeller and his Standard Oil Trust, she helped to pioneer investigative journalism. She and other "muckrakers" journalists assisted Progressive Movement reform initiatives. This movement also called for improved labor practices, government regulation of business, and other efforts aimed at improving the quality of life for all Americans.
The term "muckraker" was first used to describe Tarbell's work. The word comes from the Irish or Scottish Gaelic meaning "filthy rich person." Thus, a muckraker exposes the dirty secrets of powerful people who happen to be filthy rich. Today, the word "muckraking" has been adopted as a generic term for aggressive investigative reporting.
Ida Tarbell was born on April 2, 1861 in Erie, Pennsylvania. Her parents were English immigrants who had come to America looking for economic opportunity after suffering through the depression following the 1857 financial crisis. Her father died when she was only nine years old, leaving her mother with six children to raise. To make matters worse, her mother was diagnosed with tuberculosis, which caused Ida to spend many months each year away from school in the care of relatives.
When Ida was 16 years old, she began working for the _Erie Daily Times_ as a typesetter.