Every APA reference list entry has four essential components: author, date, title, and source. These elements are known as the bibliographic unit. For example, the bibliographic unit for any article by Susan Smith published in the July 12, 2015, issue of a newspaper called "The Washington Post" is "Smith, S." The element of source indicates that this bibliographic unit comes from this particular article.
In general, only the last element changes when citing multiple sources on one page. They can be identified by number or name. If you're using multiple sources with different titles but related content, it's acceptable to combine them onto one page. In this case, they would all be identified as sources below their respective citations. If you do choose to use more than one source on one page, make sure each one has an individual title so they can be differentiated from one another.
Sources can be books, magazines, newspapers, the Internet, etc.
For in-text citations of sources, APA style needs three essential elements: the author's name, the year of publication, and the page number mentioned. These elements are referred to as the bibliographic entry.
In general, there are two ways to include information in a citation. The first is by using full names for authors and titles of books or articles. The second is with initials only (for example, "Smith" instead of "S. Smith"). Although any information beyond the author's name can be useful when referencing an article or book, using only initials prevents the reader from knowing how many authors worked on the cited material or which publishers may have published it. Full names should be used unless there is a good reason for abbreviating them.
For printed works such as books, journals, or newspapers, the page number on which the text appears is needed. For online sources, the location within the web page at which the referenced material can be found is also necessary. These two elements make up the complete citation.
Books and magazines are usually cited with full names of authors and titles. However, for brevity, books often use initials for both names and titles. If this is the case for a particular source, then it should be cited as follows: John Smith (1969) Book Title.
In-text citations in APA format include the author's surname, publication date, and, if applicable, a location such as a page number or timestamp. As an example (Smith, 2021, p. 170). Consider it a condensed version of the reference list entry. In-text citations are used to identify sources that support the information presented in the text.
Out-of-text citations in APA format include the author's last name, year published, title of the work, volume number, if applicable, page numbers, and an identification of the specific part of the work being cited. For example, (Smith, J.K., 2021, "History of Western Philosophy", Chapter 17), or (Smith, J.K. 2021. "History of Western Philosophy" ch. 17). Out-of-text citations are used when the information in the in-text citation is not sufficient to locate the source being referenced.
When writing essays that cite sources from different books or articles, it is important to give each source equal weight by including all of its relevant information in your essay. 1 Identify the source for every fact mentioned in the paper. 2 List each source with its corresponding citation. 3 Analyze how much evidence there is against each claim made in the paper. 4 Interpret what all this evidence means for each claim.
The author(s) name(s), publication year, article title, journal name, volume and issue number, page range of the article, and a DOI are all included in an APA Style citation for a journal article (if available). To learn more about the format, click on the links below.
Citations are references to other studies or papers that we use when writing essays or articles. They are also called bibliographies or reference lists. There are several different styles of citations, depending on how much information you want to include. For example, you could include only the date cited along with the author's last name and the title of the work being referenced, or you could include the entire paper itself.
Works Cited Entries' Components
When citing sources in APA format, use the author-date method. This indicates that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source, such as Jones, should be in the text (1998). Each source should have one complete reference in the reference list at the conclusion of the article. Authors are required by style to use their first and last names when referencing themselves.
In addition to using your library's copy of the Modern Language Association (MLA) Style Manual, there are many free online resources available for creating bibliographies and citations. The Purdue OWL has a good tutorial on how to create a bibliography or citation list: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/tutorial/bibliography/.
Citations in APA format can be found in the Reference section of your article before it is published. Once it is published, any changes that need to be made will appear in the next update of your article.
The APA in-text citation style, for example, employs the author's last name and the year of publication, as in: (Field, 2005). Include the page number for direct quotations, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). Indent the quotation itself: (Field, 2005, pp. 14-15). Note that there is no need to provide a subtitle or title for in-text citations.
Citations in the reference list should include the author's last name and the year of publication within parentheses, followed by the abbreviation "et al.", with the et al. being replaced by the name(s) of the person(s) referred to (if applicable). For example, (Field, 2005) would be cited in the reference list as Field, J. H. (2005). Multiple citations and abstracts are allowed within the reference list if needed to distinguish different works by the same author. Examples might be (Field, 1990), (Field, 1996), or (Hanson, Green, & Turner, 2003).
If you use another type of citation, such as a Harvard or Vancouver style bibliography, these formats are available through our APA Reference Style Submissions toolkit.