Arguments are organized into four parts: claim, reason, support, and warrant. These parts do not have fixed lengths; instead, they depend on how much time you have to explain your point of view.
A claim is a statement or set of statements that you want to prove or disprove with evidence. For example, "Socrates was a philosopher" is a claim. "Therefore, Socrates was a man" is a conclusion that follows from making the claim. Claims can be either true or false. The evidence used to support or contradict claims can be written facts, observations, documents, etc.
Reasons are explanations why you believe the claim or why you think it is correct. Reasons may include arguments using logic and reasoning to prove or disprove claims. Even if an argument uses logical fallacies such as guilt by association, duplicity, or appeal to popularity, it still has a purpose of proving or disproving its claim.
The support of your reasons should include only evidence that proves or contradicts the claim. If you include evidence that does not relate to the claim, then it will not help you prove your case and should be removed from the support section of your argument.
Argument, on the other hand, looks at the communicative elements of reasoning. These parts do not have fixed lengths; instead, each part has a typical length when used in an argument.
A claim is a statement of belief or opinion. Claims can be expressed either explicitly or implicitly. Explicit claims state exactly what is being asserted; for example, "Socrates is a philosopher." Implicit claims infer what is meant by the word "is"; for example, "Philosophy is an ancient science that deals with questions such as why things happen the way they do." Claims can also express uncertainty or doubt about something. When making a claim, it is important to be clear and precise about what is being claimed because this will help others understand your argument and avoid misinterpreting it.
Reasoning involves explaining or justifying how and why a claim should be accepted or believed. It is important to note that reasons can be given for both accepting and rejecting claims. For example, you might reason that philosophy is an ancient science that deals with questions like why things happen the way they do because this allows us to understand history and our place in nature.
Read the page on the components of an argument, particularly warrants. Argumentation's Five Components
An argument's core components are its claim, supporting points, and proof. These components are not exclusive, so an argument can use more than one of them.
A claim is a statement or assertion that you are trying to make with your argument. Claims can be explicit or implicit. An explicit claim asks readers to accept something as true; an implicit claim does not. For example, "Teaching computers English will help students learn to communicate" is an explicit claim because it asks readers to accept that teaching computers English will help students learn to communicate. Implicit claims include assumptions or facts that are taken for granted without being stated explicitly. For example, when arguing that teaching computers English will help students learn to communicate, we are making an implicit claim that computers are a good tool for learning English. Avoid making assumptions about your audience or the situation at hand - if you cannot assume something, say so!
Supporting points are arguments that help prove your claim or support/refute other claims made by others. They can be divided into two categories: direct and indirect. Direct supporting points are those that show or imply that your claim is correct; they usually contain evidence or reasons why our conclusion must be true.
The following are the five components of an argument:
What are the fundamental elements of an argument? Claims are assertions about what is true or good, as well as statements about what should be done or believed. Reasons are explanations why someone believes what they do. Reasons may include evidence presented in the form of facts or opinions expressed by others. Evidence can also be inferred by a judge as true based on how things appear to be. Finally, warrants indicate that reasonable people would agree with some action being taken.
Arguments can be formal or informal. Formal arguments are clear, structured sequences of words or ideas used to convince others of something. These arguments follow a specific format which includes a claim, reasons for the claim, support for the reasons, and finally, conclusion(s) indicating what should happen now that the argument has been given its full weight.
Informal arguments are less strict but still convey their message effectively. They can be a simple phrase uttered by one person to another (e.g., "Come over tonight; we'll watch TV") or a written document containing both claims and reasons supporting them (e.g., an email). Informal arguments are useful tools for getting a point across quickly or simply because they allow for creativity within limits.