When you reference a source for the first time in your article, include all of the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses. Within the text, use the word and between the writers' names, and use the & in the parenthesis. Add the year and page numbers together (if there are any). For example: The study by Smith and Jones 1992. Page 3.
Two Authors' Work: Each time you mention a work, provide the authors' names in the signal phrase or in parentheses. Within the text, use the word "and" between the writers' names, and use the ampersand in parentheses. For example: Smith, Jane & Jack. They wrote several books about their experiences as teachers at a private school.
Three or More Authors': You can list the authors in order of appearance, with each author's name followed by the work they contributed to within parentheses: Jones, John, James, Charles, William, Harry. Or you can simply number the authors and works like this: Author 1: Book 1, Book 2, Book 3; Author 2: Book 4, Book 5, Book 6; etc.
If the authors' names are difficult to distinguish (for example, if they have the same last name) or if there are many authors, it may help readers if you give them a brief overview of the different roles people played in creating the work you're discussing. For example, you could say something like this: "John Smith wrote most of the articles that appear under his own name in The Journal of Accountancy." This makes it easier for readers to understand which writer is being referred to.
Mentioning an author or writers Two Authors' Work: Each time you mention a work, provide the authors' names in the signal phrase or in parentheses. If there is more than one writer on a book or article, repeat this process for each author. Include the year published if it was written recently (i.e., after 1995). A book with three authors would look like this: Three Authors' Work: Each time you refer to the work, include the names of all three authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
Asking someone for information About a Writer: When you ask someone for information about an author, follow the same procedure as when you mention them. In other words, provide the author's name in the signal phrase or in parentheses, and use the word "and" between the writers' names inside the sentence.
Naming people in reports/essays/theses/articles/books In general, use the last name then the first name.
Two Authors' Work Each time you mention a work, provide the authors' names in the signal phrase or in parentheses. For example: The article by Smith and Jones is excellent.
Give the initial author's name followed by et al. for the parenthetical citation and works cited citation. Don't repeat the editor's name within the text.
Include the last names of both writers in parenthesis, separated by the word 'and,' followed by the page number (no comma before the page number). Include the first author's last name in parenthesis, followed by 'et al.' and the page number (no comma before the page number).
Citing multiple authors in footnotes is a bit complicated. In this case, you should provide back-links to the cited pages. Using the data included with this article, here are two ways to format footnotes referring to three authors: one using single quotes, one using double quotes.
The first method uses single quotes to define a footnote reference. It involves placing a unique character at the end of each citation link. When referencing the link in the text, use the quoted symbol followed by the letter 'q' (without the quotation marks), for example, ""q"the second paragraph. " This method allows you to create hyperlinks to other pages on the website.
The second method uses double quotes to define a footnote reference. It works exactly like the previous technique, except that you replace the quoted symbol with an undouble quote mark. For example, "doublestar" is the same as doubliestar. This method allows you to create anchor texts for images or other elements on the page.
It's important to note that only certain characters can be used as footnote symbols.
If you are directly quoting from a work, give the author's name, year of publication, and page number in the reference (preceded by "p."). Begin the quotation with a signal phrase that contains the author's last name, followed by the publication date in parentheses. The term "ideal machine" refers to a hypothetical mechanical system that does not lose or disperse energy or power due to friction, deformation, wear, or other inefficiencies. A basic machine's mechanical efficiency is measured by dividing the actual power output by the ideal power output. Modern machines tend to have higher mechanical efficiencies than basic machines because they use more efficient motors and transmissions.
An ideal machine has a 100% mechanical efficiency. In other words, if one could design an engine that did not lose any energy during operation, it would be impossible to improve on this design. Real engines have large losses due to friction and other factors, but modern engines can reach values as high as 90%. An engine that uses fuel cell technology instead of a combustion chamber can reach values as high as 99.9%.
You should include the source title, author, date, and page number in the in-text citation. If the quote is longer than one line, type \\ at the beginning of a new line then enter the citation information. Use footnotes to indicate additional information about the source.
Remember that when citing a book without an author, include the title of the work in the signal phrase and the page number in parentheses. You may also use an abbreviated version of the book's title followed by the page number. For example, (The Elements of Style) or (Elements of Style).
Books published by large companies often have editors who help select material for inclusion; thus, they usually have authors who get credit for the material they select. However, if an editor was not involved in the creation of the book, then they should be cited as having written all content on the page on which they are referenced. For example, a reference to a page number within Ann Dolan's column would list her as the author even though she did not write every word of each article.
In cases where there is no author given, it is up to the reader to determine if the reference is to an edited work or a collection of articles from multiple contributors. If this is not clear from the context, then the lack of an author should be noted in the text through the use of punctuation or additional words such as "a," "the," or "she."
References are also used when giving full citations for films, songs, interviews, etc.