Arguments are organized into four parts: claim, reason, support, and warrant. These parts do not have fixed sizes; instead, each part may be any length.
A claim is a statement or proposition that you want to establish as true. Claims can be explicit, such as "Saul loves his wife", or they may be implicit, such as "Saul believes that marriage is between a man and a woman". A claim cannot be proven true or false; it just is or isn't true based on how things are in reality.
Reasons are explanations or arguments for why you believe what you claim. Reasons may be logical or empirical. Logical reasons use logic alone to prove your claim; empirical reasons use facts gathered from research or experience.
Supports are documents or examples that help prove your claim or reason. Documents can be anything written down, such as letters, journals, or books; examples are things that have actually happened, such as "Saul's father has read all of Saul's letters" or "All marriages in Utah dissolve after only one divorce".
Warrants are statements that promise something good if your claim is true or bad if it is not true.
Read the page on the components of an argument, particularly warrants. The Five Argument Parts:
An argument's core components are its claim, supporting points, and proof. These elements are the building blocks of good arguments.
A claim is a statement or assertion that you are trying to make in order to argue for your position. For example, if you were arguing for student-centered learning, then your claim would be "Student-centered learning is the best method for teaching literacy."
Supporting points are facts or examples used to support or illustrate your claim. They can be derived from research or can be based on your experience and knowledge of the topic at hand. For example, if you were arguing for student-centered learning, one of your supporting points might be "Students learn better when they are given freedom and responsibility."
Proof is evidence that helps to prove your claim or supports your conclusion. It can be derived from primary sources (such as peer-reviewed publications) or secondary sources (such as books or articles). For example, if you were arguing for student-centered learning, one form of proof would be "Recent studies have shown that students learn better when teachers give them freedom and responsibility."
Arguments contain a claim and some form of proof for that claim.
The following are the five components of an argument:
What Are the Fundamental Elements of an Argument? Argument, on the other hand, looks at the communicative elements of reasoning. Claims are assertions about what is true or good, as well as statements about what should be done or believed. Reasons are explanations why someone believes what they do. They are not justifications, which are defenses against accusations that could lead to punishment. Supports are additional reasons people can offer for their claims or beliefs. They can be facts, examples, references, etc. Warrants are assurances that something will happen or has happened.
Arguments can be formal or informal. Informal arguments rely on logic but lack any specific structure. Formal arguments have a defined structure that follows a specific pattern. Two common forms of formal arguments are syllogisms and deductive arguments. Syllogisms are structured using three propositions with a conclusion placed at the end. Each of the propositions used in a syllogism must contain a subject, a verb, and a direct object. For example, the syllogism "All humans are mortal; Socrates is human; therefore, he is mortal" has two subjects (all humans and Socrates), one verb (is) and one direct object (mortal). Deductions are formal arguments where each premise must be supported by a reason and where the conclusion must follow logically from the premises. Deductive arguments are clear and simple to understand because each step of the process has been clearly explained.