An abstract, introduction, literature review, main body, discussion, conclusion, and bibliography and/or references are common elements of scholarly journal articles. Other types of publications may have different structure but concepts such as "article" and "section" still apply.
In general terms, the structure of a journal article is: author(s) name, title of paper, academic institution or organization, year published, issue number, pages. Book reviews and essays usually have a much longer main body and sometimes contain multiple parts (e.g., an introductions, three main bodies, one conclusion, and a bibliography). Research papers tend to be shorter with less detail in the main body and often lack a conclusion.
Sometimes authors use these terms instead of "paper" and "journal article": conference paper, magazine article, newspaper article, website post.
Other terms that may appear in the title page include: abstract, analysis, appendix, biography, bibliography, checklist, compendium, conundrum, critique, dictionary, essay, exposé, guide, index, interview, memoir, memorandum, novella, overview, pamphlet, primer, preface, report, review, section, short story, thesis, tome, treatise, and volume.
The following key components are found in nearly all journal articles: abstract, introduction, methodology, results, discussion, and references. Each section plays an important role in helping readers understand the topic covered in the paper.
The abstract is a brief summary of the article's content and purpose. It should be concise (one-paragraph) and not include any information that will be provided in the body of the paper. The goal of the abstract is to capture the attention of potential reviewers and editors so they will consider the paper.
The introduction describes the background of the problem being addressed by the paper, including relevant theories and previous research on the issue. It should be written in a way that gets readers interested in the topic. The introduction should also state what is unique about this study, in terms of methods or findings.
Methodology describes the design and analysis plans for the paper. It should be written in such a way that judges understanding of the issues involved will be increased after reading it. References should be added at the end of the paper. They should list all publications that were used as sources of information for this study.
Results present data obtained from experiments or studies. Results can be presented in two forms: descriptive and analytical.
Scholarly Articles and Journals: Characteristics They are frequently formal in appearance, including tables, graphs, and diagrams. Always include an abstract or summary paragraph above the content; it should include parts addressing methods. Articles are authored by a subject matter expert or authority. Journalists write news stories that are often one-sided; they may also edit articles written by others. Broadcast journalists may have more freedom than writers for print publications. Memoirs can be either autobiographical or fictionalized; they describe real people and events but are not factual history.
Journal articles are usually short (about 5000 words), concise reports on topics within their fields of study. They may examine some aspect of science or technology, analyze its implications, or present other information relevant to scholars. Research papers focus on a single topic and are designed to advance knowledge by presenting new ideas, analyzing data, or proposing solutions to problems.
Some journals are better known for one type of article than another. For example, a psychology journal might publish research studies or articles describing original experiments or surveys. A conservation journal could consider submissions of case studies or anecdotes documenting notable changes occurring across large areas of land or ocean. Many journals will allow you to search for articles using specific keywords. However, because publishers must charge authors for space in each issue of their magazines and journals, they tend to choose what types of articles they will accept based on their perceived value to the field.