Philippine literature's principal topics are on the country's pre-colonial cultural traditions, as well as the sociopolitical history of its colonial and modern traditions. These themes are present in many different forms including poetry, prose, drama, and art.
Filipino literature is known for its poetic qualities, such as rhyme and meter. The country has also produced some notable novelists such as José Rizal, who published two novels in the late 19th century, and Nicanor Perlas, who wrote several works in the early 20th century.
The Philippines' political history has had an impact on its literary history. During its period as a Spanish colony, 16th-century Spanish poet Jorge de Montemayor published his Forma de Poetria (Art of Poetry) book, which was used by Filipino poets as a guide to composing verse.
After Spain ceded control of the Philippines to the United States in 1815, American authors began to influence Filipino literature. For example, former U.S. President James K. Polk is credited with writing the first Filipino-language novel, Abugida: Being a Collection of Papers Written in the Ilokano Language by George M. Tuggle, which was published in 1848.
Philippine literature is literature related with the Philippines from prehistory to the present, including colonial legacies. Pre-Hispanic Philippine literature was essentially epics passed down by oral tradition from generation to generation. These epics were used as a guide for society and served to instill values in their listeners. They often included descriptions of battles and other events for which they were written.
Post-Hispanic Philippine literature refers to writings produced in the Philippines since 1521, when Spanish explorer Álvaro Núñez Cabeza arrived here with his fleet, bringing with him news of Spain's conquest of Mexico and Peru and offering prizes for the person who could come up with the most effective way of transporting gold from the Philippines to Spain. He also brought with him books and manuscripts written by Spanish scholars, which began a process that would result in the development of Filipino writing in both prose and poetry.
Filipino writers have been influential in themselves and others through their works. Francisco Balagtas is considered the father of modern Philippine literature because he was one of the first people to write poems in the Filipino language. His work introduced new styles of writing and influenced many later poets. José Rizal is known as the "Father of Modernism" in the Philippines for his novel Noli me tangere, which features a hero who tries to reform his country through nonviolent action.
Philippine literature encompasses Philippine history from prehistory to the colonial period and up to the present day. World literature disseminates information across cultures and nations. Both are important fields of study that deal with writing and its effects.
Filipino writers such as Lope de Vega, Francisco Balagtas, and Jose Rizal developed a national identity for the Philippines based on language, art, and culture. These authors are known as the Filipino Renaissance people. They introduced modernism into the country's literary scene. Modernists such as Pablo Neruda, Vicente Alejandro, and Junot Diaz have been influential in promoting Hispanic-language literature throughout the world.
In recent years, Philippine literature has become more popular due to novelists and poets such as Antonio J. Villegas Jr., Cesar A. Hidalgo, and Efren N. Reyes who have drawn attention to issues concerning migration, violence, and war.
World literature is defined as "all written work produced by authors outside their own country or region". The term can be used as a general label for literature written in different languages around the world.