New Criticism, Reader Response Criticism, Structuralism, Feminism, Marxism, Cultural Poetics, and Cultural Studies are twentieth-century literary theories that are created utilizing Western principles with the text as the object of study. Oral literature is known by many names including folklore, ephemera, proverbs, jokes, anecdotes, and memes. The various theories of literature apply to studies of oral poetry, songs, stories, and narratives in general.
In general, these theories view language as a tool for understanding reality and ourselves. They seek to understand how people communicate information and ideas through words and linguistics. Literature deals with concepts such as truth, beauty, and morality; the theories question what role these values play in creating or interpreting texts.
Some theories focus on defining what makes a work of art "good" while others focus on explaining why certain works are more popular than others. Some theories were designed to explain only part of the picture, while others can be applied to any type of text. For example, structuralist theory explains how symbols work together to create meaning within a text while reader response criticism focuses on how readers interact with the text itself.
Many theories have been developed over time through discussion among scholars.
"Literary theory" refers to the collection of concepts and procedures that we employ in our practical reading of literature. Literary theory takes a variety of methods to understanding the function of historical context in interpretation, as well as the significance of linguistic and unconscious textual aspects. It also involves the systematic study of specific texts, or "texts," in order to explain what makes them special or typical.
The most basic principle of literary theory is that meaning in literature is ambiguous. This means that there are more than one possible explanation for any event, character, or phrase in a text. The various possibilities are called "interpretations." Each interpretation is made up of two parts: a causal explanation that explains how and why something happened or was said, and a critical assessment of the work as a whole that determines whether it is positive or negative.
Interpretations are always subjective because they depend on the perspective of the reader. Even if two readers read the same text, with the same intention, they will see something different because of their different backgrounds and experiences. Literary theorists attempt to be as objective as possible by limiting their interpretations to certain factors such as genre, society, psychology, and language, but still believe that there is no single right way to understand a text.
Another principle of literary theory is that history affects interpretation. This means that events in someone's life or world situation can influence how they read and respond to a text.
We don't mean the meaning of a work of literature when we say literary theory, but rather the ideas that indicate what literature might signify. These include theories about art, aesthetics, interpretation, history, society, politics, etc.
Theoretical approaches include: psychoanalysis, structuralism, feminism, post-structuralism, new criticism, cultural studies, discourse analysis.
Literary theory has been called "the queen of the humanities", since it involves many different disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, biology, chemistry, economics, ethics, history, linguistics, philosophy, psychology, religion, sociology.
Literary theory is important because we want to understand what literature is and does. It also helps us appreciate why some texts are considered great works of art and others are not. Finally, theory provides a framework within which to discuss questions such as "what is poetry?" or "why read fiction instead of non-fiction?"
Some scholars believe that literary theory has become too influential and has taken over from literary practice in today's academia. Others argue that literary theory can help us understand more about what makes for a great text.
In conclusion, literary theory is a valuable tool for understanding literature.
The sociological approach to literature entails situating an author and his or her work within a larger societal context. According to this interpretation, a piece of literature can only be fully comprehended by investigating the society in which it was written. The social aspects of writing and reading are therefore essential elements in understanding literary works.
Literature students using this approach study authors not only for their personal traits but also with regard to their times. They look at how certain ideas were expressed in different cultures over time because such studies offer valuable insights into human nature.
This method also helps students understand why some writers are popular while others are not. There must be something about the way their work speaks to the public that makes some authors successful while others fade away quickly after their first success. Students using this approach try to find similarities between the lives of authors and themselves in order to better understand the connection between their work and their personalities.
Studies of this kind are useful because they help students develop critical thinking skills. They require them to analyze texts with an eye toward determining what parts are important socially and why. This means students using this method cannot simply read literature for entertainment; rather, they must seek out relevant information about the world around them if they want to understand what they are reading.
While there is some debate, most people believe that modern literature is defined as anything written after 1940. Contemporary literature reflects a society's social and/or political ideas, as demonstrated through realistic characters, references to current events, and socioeconomic messages. It is interesting to note that many classic works of literature were originally written for performance before an audience, so they could not be considered contemporary literature.
Some consider Shakespeare to be the father of modern writing because of its use of irony, ambiguity, and multiple plots. Other major writers include Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, John Donne, George Herbert, William Shakespeare, Milton, Dryden, Pope, Johnson, Byron, Shelley, Keats, and Dickens.
In conclusion, modern literature refers to any writing created since 1940 or shortly thereafter. It shows evidence of society's influence with real-life characters, referential content, and messages about the environment and human behavior.
Literature enables us to convey the fundamental meanings of a certain culture, its stereotypes, archetypes, and collective conscience, so generating the potential of social change through a critic who can operate in the subconscious realm of emotions.
It also provides means for individuals to express themselves freely, especially writers who suffer from society's indifference or persecution. The power of words is evident in poems, novels, and plays, which have been used to protest wars, injustice, oppression, and intolerance across history.
Literary works can thus influence public opinion and bring about cultural changes by portraying aspects of society's ills or celebrating achievements. They can even serve as a guide for good governance or provide inspiration for leaders to better their communities.
At the same time, literature can be used to promote prejudices and support oppression. There have been many cases where books have been burned, people have been executed for reading offenses, and artists have been forced to distort their work to fit into a regime's ideology. However, more often than not, these attempts at censorship fail because readers and thinkers refuse to comply.
The impact of literature cannot be limited to one aspect of life; it must be considered in all areas of human activity from art to science, philosophy, politics, and law.