Every argument contains four important components: 1. A thesis statement, a claim, or a proposition to be substantiated that deals with a probability rather than a fact or an opinion, 2. To persuade an audience that the thesis assertion is correct. 3. Evidence that supports the assertion 4. A conclusion that restates the main idea of the essay.
An argument consists of three basic parts: a problem, a solution, and a justification for choosing the solution over the others. Students should understand that good arguments consist of these three parts.
A problem is a clear issue that needs to be resolved through an explanation or analysis of the facts or information provided. Problems can be either factual or logical. Factual problems involve evidence that can be seen or felt while logical problems require logic and reason to solve them. Examples of factual problems include questions such as "Why did Roosevelt not shoot a bear in Mississippi?" or "Why does my teacher like Roosevelt's speeches better than Wilson's?". Logical problems include explanations such as "Since Roosevelt won the election, he must have done something right" or "Since Wilson lost the election, he must have done something wrong".
Students should also understand that solutions to problems can be simple or complex. Simple solutions are ones that use straightforward methods to resolve the problem at hand; while complex solutions use several methods to achieve their goal.
The structure of an argumentative essay is comprised of the five components listed below:
In academic writing, an argument is generally a core notion, also known as a "claim" or "thesis statement," that is supported by evidence. In scientific papers, the evidence may be experimental data obtained by performing studies; in essays written for a general audience, it often takes the form of references to other sources who have previously argued the case.
An argument consists of two parts: a conclusion and a reason for concluding so. The reason must be given in order to justify the conclusion; but it need not be stated in any detail, since the reader can infer what it is if he or she wishes to do so.
For example, when writing about the causes of some event, an argument might be stated in terms of "there being no reasonable alternative explanation" for it. This is the writer's conclusion. The reason for this conclusion is that it has been shown that events such as this one most commonly have a single cause. Here, "single" means that there is only one possible reason why this event could have happened; anything else would be unusual.
When writing about issues such as these, it is useful to think in terms of arguments because then you are working with a defined concept that others may understand.
To support the thesis statement and analyze different points of view, the argumentative essay demands well-researched, accurate, complete, and current material. The theory should be supported by some empirical, logical, statistical, or anecdotal evidence. Statistical evidence is based on large samples of data that show a pattern of results that can be repeated in other situations. An example of statistical evidence would be a research study that shows that students who take certain courses tend to receive higher grades than those who do not. Empirical evidence comes from direct observations of what happens in real life; for example, a researcher might watch people playing chess to see how strategies affect victory rates. Logical evidence uses logic alone to prove or disprove a claim; for example, if you were to use only logic (no facts mentioned), you could conclude that all mammals are capable of learning because dogs have been shown to do so in experiments. Anecdotal evidence comes from first-person accounts of what happened in particular cases; for example, someone might tell you about a friend's experience with a college course to explain why they think it is useful.
Analyzing different points of view is one of the most important aspects of the argumentative essay. Each paragraph should contain evidence that supports either side of the debate. Both conservative and liberal views should be represented in order for the reader to make their own judgment about which position seems more reasonable.
Arguments are organized into four parts: claim, reason, support, and warrant. Claims are assertions about what is true or good, as well as statements about what should be done or believed. Reasons are explanations why someone believes what they do. They are usually made up of three components: evidence, examples, and implications. Evidence is facts or data that help to prove or disprove a claim or conclusion. Examples are cases in which the claim or conclusion was correct. Implications are predictions about what will happen if the claim or conclusion is found to be true.
Every argument has a claim, reason, support, and sometimes a rebuttal. Arguments can be formal or informal. Informal arguments are simply lists of reasons given in order to convince others of their view. Formal arguments are structured patterns of words that contain a clear beginning, middle, and end. They are written down as a way to make them easier to recall and express their conclusions clearly.
Formal arguments can be divided up into five basic types: inductive, deductive, analytic, dialectical, and ad hoc.
Inductive arguments show how something is true based on a series of instances.